Please note that some session codes have been changed.
The construction of myths reveals the prevailing cultural and political priorities within cities. Myths take many forms and include mythologies, memories and the multifarious ways in which people make meanings from their urban spaces. Drawing on the theme of the conference we want to examine how urban historians can re-interpret the city by critically engaging with the partiality of urban myth making. Often however these constructions are partial representations that select elements of the city and in doing so fail to engage with the complexity of urban life and how cities develop over time. Whilst myths reveal an image of the city during a snapshot in time they often have considerable long-term consequences. For example, the myth of Edinburgh as a non-industrial city saw city planners consistently reduce land allocated for industry during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries with severe socio-economic consequences. Similarly, the colonial era image of the ‘black’ and ‘white’ town in cities such as Calcutta obscured much more complex and composite realities whilst maintaining notions of European superiority and influencing planning regulations and public health policies. More recently, the representation of certain Indian cities as quintessential centres of ‘Hindu’ or ‘Muslim’ culture has influenced contemporary ideas of ‘Heritage City’ development.
This session seeks to engage with Western and non-Western cities to examine the processes behind, and consequences of, myth making in a comparative urban context. The session asks these key questions:
- How do myths develop over time and what conditions ensure that they survive or are replaced with different myths?
- Who develops and perpetuates myths and for what reasons?
- In what ways do myths influence the development of cities?
- What discursive frameworks, such as literary/visual sources, are used to create and sustain myths?
- To what extent and in what ways do competing myths exist within cities?
In doing so the session extends the historiographical debates surrounding invented traditions, myths, collective memories and intangible urban heritages. This session wants to move beyond seeing myths as the cornerstone of national identity and part of place branding strategies to consider the ways in which myths inform the longer-term development of the city in comparative context. We are particularly interested in how comparative studies and innovative methodological research uncover new sources and ask new questions of why myths are created and their consequences. As such, we welcome proposals from any period or geographical context(s).
|To be set in stone – Urban monumental inscriptions as media of the collective memory in Early Modern Germany|
|Teresa Schröder-Stapper||Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany|
|Mosaic art in urban spaces in Israel and the sense of place|
|Ze'ev Shavit; Alec Mishory||Western Galilee College, Acre, Israel; Independent researcher|
|Saints, Scientists, and Politicians: Making Brasília’s Past|
|Emily Fay Story||Salisbury University, United States of America|
|‘All the historic buildings worth looking at are in Paris or London’: the Australian city and the myth of heritage absence|
|James Phillip Lesh||University of Melbourne, Australia|
|Myth and materialism and flexibility in the re-making of Edinburgh, 1840-2015|
|Robert Morris||Edinburgh University, United Kingdom|
|The Angel of the Gorbals: the complexities of mythologies and public art in creating and narrating the post-industrial cityscape|
|Venda Louise Pollock||Newcastle University, United Kingdom|
|Crafting Meaning in the City: Pious Enactments and the Public Life of Sierra Leonean Muslims in Washington, D.C.|
|JoAnn D'Alisera||University of Arkansas, United States of America|
|Mythologies of the past and present in urban transnational spaces: the case of the nineteenth-century shopping arcade|
|Nicole Jacqueline Davis||University of Melbourne, Australia|
|Ephemeral cities for real myths: Romanitá e Reapurtuguesamento in the national exhibitions in Rome(1937) and Lisbon(1940)|
|Annarita Gori; Paola S. Salvatori||Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal; Scuola Normale Superiore Pisa, Italy|
From the beginning of their existence universities belonged to the institutions, which provoked the urban society to different reactions. On the one hand universities brought the towns social and economic activation, on the other hand university milieu presented heterogeneous element, which (thanks to its special law status) affected the aims of the urban elites to discipline the majority of the citizens. Such relations usually resulted in a „marriage of convenience“, but mostly also kept on their strong conflict potential. Mutual interference between both urban and university elements contributed in a significant manner to economic, social and confessional structure of the urban society. Furthermore, it also markedly influenced the visual image of urban units, which had to adapt to the presence of the faculties and colleges.
Currently the methods of historical anthropology and historical sociology properly supplement the new social history or historical demography. They brought a lot of impulses to the interest on the relationship between cities and universities and brought it back between frequented topics of research. The impulses come also from several related branches, such as sociology, art history or care of historical monuments. Nevertheless, no systematic aim had been undertaken in last two decades to switch through the individual projects and follow the older publications from the turn of the 1980s and 1990s (volumes edited by Thomas Bender or Heinz Duchhardt).
The section should present first of all interdisciplinary meeting. Its aim is to present new methodological trends, which actually try to explicate the co-existence and conflicts between city and university. The questions that are to be discussed in this section were summed up in five points:
a) How did the co-existence of city and university influenced the ritualized communication in the cities, i. e. events in the frame of the municipal and university celebrations and performances, later also political happenings etc.?
b) How did the presence of a university change the visual shape of towns?
c) How did universities influence the cities which were not their seats? How to handle the phenomenon of university branches (faculties, institutes, research units), which are situated in towns outside of the headquarters of the university?
d) How were relations between magistrates and university officals, students and city dwellers?
e) How did the presence of a university influence the migration in an appropriate town? What was the impact of „peregrinatio academica“ on demographical situation, structure of elites, municipal economy etc.?
|Town and gown in medieval and early modern Cambridge: the example of Trinity College|
|John Stephen Lee||University of York, United Kingdom|
|”Will you marry this woman?” The examining of breach of promise cases in a 17th century Nordic university town|
|Mari Välimäki||University of Turku, Finland|
|Changing attitudes of revolting students towards ‘town and gown’|
|Pieter Dhondt||University of Eastern Finland, Finland|
|The Unexpected Emergence of a Heritage Movement: Town vs. gown in Edinburgh|
|Ruxandra-Iulia Stoica||Scottish Centre for Conservation Studies, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom|
|Early modern European towns as centres of young noblemen’s studies. From traditional lections to a „diffuse“ university|
|Zdenek Hojda||Charles University, Czech Republic|
|Regional town planning and universities development : The case of Paris (1940-1975)|
|Loic Vadelorge||Université de Paris-Est Marne la Vallée, France|
|A Long Way to Establish University of South Bohemia.The Tradition and Roots of University Education in South Bohemia|
|Miroslav Novotný||University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic|
The phenomenon of forced removal from urban communities has a long history in many forms, from banishment in the sense of a ritual, judicial exclusion from medieval and early modern cities (Zaremska 1996; Jacob 2000; Coy 2008), over administrative removals in the context of poor relief administration (King & Winter 2013), to individual or collective expulsions as part of migration policies (Fahrmeir et al. 2003; De Munck & Winter 2012; Hahn 2012). While the context and implications may differ greatly, these various types of forced exclusion have in common that their motivations and practices inform us in an inverse manner on norms on inclusion/exclusion in different social spheres, from deviance and crime over poor relief to migration, religion and ethnicity (Gestrich & Raphael 2009). So far, however, research on these diverse forms of urban removal has mostly taken place in different spheres, disciplines and period-specializations, so that there is little to no insight in the overall connections, contrasts, similarities and changes through time and space.
This session aims to bring together research on banishments, removals and expulsions for different cities in distinct time settings in order to work towards a truly long-term comparative framework to analyse similarities and differences in urban exclusionary norms and practices, in which for instance the influence of for instance city type (e.g. border, port, industrial, capital city), city size or political regime can be evaluated. It therefore invites papers dealing with one or more types of forced removal from one or more cities in one or more time period, and explicitly encourages researchers to engage with a number of basic empirical questions on who, how many, how and why in order to facilitate the development of comparative insights. We particularly welcome papers with a comparative or longitudinal perspective.
References: J.P. Coy, Strangers and Misfits: Banishment, Social Control, and Authority in Early Modern Germany, 2008; B. De Munck & A. Winter, Gated Communities? Regulating Migration in Early Modern Cities, 2012; A. Fahrmeir et al., Migration Control in the North Atlantic World, 2005; A. Gestrich & L. Raphael, Inklusion/Exklusion: Studien zu Fremdheit und Armut von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 2008; S. Hahn, Historische Migrationsforschung, 2012; R. Jacob, ‘Bannissement et rite de la langue tirée au Moyen Âge’, Annales HSS 55 (2000) 1039–79; S. King & A. Winter, Migration, Settlement and Belonging in Europe, 2013; Zaremska, H, Les bannis au Moyen Âge, 1996.
|The Expulsion of the Jews from Palermo and Messina|
|Salvatore Bottari; Giuseppe Campagna||University of Messina, Italy; University of Messina, Italy|
|Political Banishments and Judicial Violence in Sixteenth Century Geneva|
|Mathieu Caesar||Université de Genève, Switzerland|
|Sectarian suburbs, social exclusion: planning, conflict and segregated housing in Outer Belfast, Northern Ireland, since 1968|
|Mark Clapson||University of Westminster, United Kingdom|
|Social exclusion after the Blitz: the governance of planning in Rotterdam and Coventry since 1940|
|Stefan Couperus||University of Groningen, the Netherlands|
|Not going back the same way they came? Mapping out the urban dimension of entry and exit routes of Belgian expellees (1840-1890)|
|Torsten Bjorn Feys; Anne Winter||Free University Brussels (VUB), Belgium|
|The Expulsion of the Christian Moneylenders from the Cities in the Southern Low Countries (1618-) : another case of "Anti-Judaism"|
|Myriam Greilsammer||Bar-Ilan University, Israel|
|From Luceria christianorum to Luceria sarracenorum and Back: State Making and the Forced Migrations of Muslims (and Others) in Late Medieval Southern Italy|
|Alexander Kane Harper||Princeton University, United States of America|
|Excluding the unwanted? Banishment in early modern cities: Frankfurt am Main, Amsterdam and Leiden|
|Jeannette Kamp; Ariadne Schmidt||Universiteit Leiden, the Netherlands|
|'To ban without mercy': Gender, Citizenship and Crime in an Early Modern Russian City|
|Marianna Muravyeva||Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation|
|Danger to the City: Politics of migrant banishment in colonial Calcutta, 1923-1947|
|Sugata Nandi||West Bengal State University, Kolkata, India|
The study of urban space in Pompeii has been pursued within Archaeology for more than 20 years – some outside this discipline have looked with envy as the study of space has moved forward. After two decades, it is part of the accepted practice of how the site is studied. However, there is a need for some critique – has all the measurement of every variation of its fabric: ramps to park carts, wheel-ruts to determine traffic-flow, space syntax applications and so on actually produced a better understanding of space and society?
The use of theory is still an area that is contested. A UK national overview of research in Classics concluded that: ‘In studies of phenomena such as urbanism, the use of space, public and domestic, and the Roman economy, the borderlines between archaeology and history are being tested. The development of new theoretical lines of inquiry, used with caution, offers benefits, although some were uncertain as to the applicability of theory to evidence; the use of theory is still a work in progress.’
This session wishes to look back with a critical glance-over-the-shoulder at how the study of space developed in Pompeii (the Chair’s introduction), but then seeks to move forward and look to the future of how the Roman city should be studied in this century to address the following themes for discussion:
- The application of new theoretical lines of enquiry and their benefits;
- The use of evidence and the use of theory;
- Measuring the urban environment and the relationship of these measurements to social phenomena;
- Haptic or sensory approaches to space;
- What does the study of Pompeii to date provide for the wider study of urbanism.
|Re-populating Ancient Pompeii|
|Sandra Joshel; Lauren Petersen||University of Washington, United States of America; University of Delaware, United States of America|
|Who needs public space? The view from Pompeii 4th - 2nd centuries BCE.|
|Elena Isayev; Christopher Siwicki||University of Exeter, United Kingdom|
|Spatial Culture in Ostia and Pompeii|
|Hanna Stoger||University of Augsburg, Germany/University of Leiden, the Netherlands|
|Childhood Spaces in Roman Oxyrhynchos|
|April Pudsey; Ville Vuolanto||Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom; University of Oslo, Norway|
|The visual identities of a Roman city|
|Arja Karivieri||Stockholm university, Sweden|
|Sounds, Space and Society: Urban Acoustics After Pompeii|
|Jeffrey David Veitch||University of Kent, United Kingdom|
|Measuring the socioeconomic function of the peristyle garden|
|Samuli Simelius||University of Helsinki, Finland|
This session will address the overarching question of the impact of migration on medieval and early modern towns and cities, and in turn the ways in which migrants and migrant communities themselves have been affected by their ‘host’ cities and by experiences of arrival and settlement. This is not, of course, a new concern for urban historians, but the subject has been transformed over the past decade or so in a number of ways, meaning that this is an exciting moment to open the discussion up, to raise new questions and to share new methodologies. Recent major research projects have gathered extensive data on the characteristics of medieval migrants in Northern Europe, for example, as well as on economic interactions between ‘strangers’ and host populations within networks of credit and exchange. The nature and functions of migrant groups is being further explored in studies of mobile forms of association and socio-legal regulation, and the impact that they had on cities, their inhabitants and institutions. The rise of ‘global history’ has placed increased emphasis on the roles of cities (especially port cities), and the movement of peoples, ideas and commodities as part of international networks of exchange. Research is, for example, examining the impact of colonial expansion, through the cultural artefacts and practices of migrant communities of different kinds. The study of identity and settlement is being transformed through greater consideration of space and place, and by linguistic research. Scientific techniques are greatly extending our understanding of the movement of peoples, and the transmission and exchange of skills and techniques.
The session organisers invite proposals relating to migration to and from cities, whether in Europe, Asia, Africa or the Americas in the period c.1200-1700. We particularly invite interdisciplinary and comparative perspectives on migration, as well as case studies of particular town, cities and migrant groups. We especially welcome papers that deal with (but are not necessarily limited to) the following topics:
– Strategies of arrival and survival: identity, mutual support and assimilation
– ‘Portable communities’ and their social, legal and cultural forms
– Migration, language and space: the ordering/contesting of the urban landscape
– The transmission of skills and production; innovation and the roles of institutions and and networks
– Inclusion and exclusion: contemporary responses to migration, and perspectives on the world beyond the city
– The ‘materiality’ of migration: impacts on urban environments and on domestic, cultural and religious practices
|Towns of Strangers? The Role of Foreign Settlers in the Urban Development of East-Central Europe|
|Katalin Szende||Central European University, Hungary|
|Flemish immigrants in the region of Valladolid during the sixteenth century|
|Janna Everaert||Vrije Universiteit Brussel; Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium|
|‘As well by the English as by the Strangers’: the presence of the stranger in civic pageantry|
|Tracey Hill||Bath Spa University, United Kingdom|
|The migrant metalworkers of the middle ages: the transfer of skills to London and the provincial towns of England, 1350-1550.|
|Jessica Ann Lutkin||University of York, United Kingdom|
|Migrating craftsmen in Early Modern cities|
|Maija Liisa Ojala||University of Tampere, Finland|
|Surviving Seville and prospering in the Iberian Atlantic: the crucial role of Spanish wives in early 16th century English trading networks|
|Heather Dalton||University of Melbourne, Australia|
|Fornicating Foreigners. Sodomy, Migration, and Urban Society in the Southern Low Countries (1400-1700)|
|Jonas Roelens||Ghent University, Belgium|
M06. Belief Systems and the Making of Urban Politics: Comparing Cities in Europe and the Wider Mediterranean World (1100–1700)
In what ways do belief systems inspire and shape urban politics? Many historians of urban politics, especially in certain parts of Europe, have either ignored this question for a long time, or they approached it from vantage points which have been increasingly questioned. Perhaps most prominent is the interpretation of ‘civic religion’ as an instrument used by rulers and urban oligarchies to control urban society and the behaviour of city-dwellers. Scholars now stress that ‘religion’ is far more than a resource for the justification of power, and argue for a less functionalist and more diversified interpretation of the links between belief systems and urban politics. Especially for the Reformation in the German lands and the Low Countries, as well as medieval and early modern cities in the Islamic world, historians can now draw on a large amount of scholarship on this question, but historians of urban politics have much to catch up on.
This session invites scholars to think about the weight and effect which belief systems, and their associated practices and practitioners, had on urban politics, especially the formation of public opinion, political ideology, and processes of deliberation in cities in the period before the Enlightenment. Its particular focus is comparative: first, it brings together medievalists and early modernists working on the crossroads of urban politics and religion; second, it looks at different areas across Europe and the wider Mediterranean world, including regions of the Islamic world. By belief systems are meant not only various forms and interpretations of Christianity, but also Judaism, Islam or any other religious rationality. Preference will be given to submissions that are deliberately comparative in spirit.
Some concrete questions:
– What role did religious professionals play in the spread of political ideas, the mobilisation of urban rebels or everyday politics?
– To what extent did urban oligarchies intersect with religious professionals?
– How did belief systems affect the governance of cities? To what extent could they be said to have had a greater effect on other units of political organisation in cities, such as neighbourhoods or guilds?
– What role did religious law play in urban politics?
– How did religious ceremonial intersect with urban politics?
– To what extent did belief systems encourage or discourage urban rebellion?
|Religiosus, discretus et sapiens vir: the role of religious practitioners in the urban politics of Italy, c. 1200-c.1450|
|Frances Andrews||University of St Andrews, United Kingdom|
|Appropriating a city. The Ottoman conquest and the sacred landscape of Damascus|
|Torsten Wollina||Orient Institut Beirut, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)|
|A Multicultural Entity: Constantinople and its Heterogenous Religious Identity|
|Elina Gugliuzzo||University of Naples Pegaso, Italy|
|La communauté originelle des biens et les rues publiques médiévales : politiques, discours et normes (France, XIIIe-XVe siècles)|
|Aurelle Levasseur||Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Université Paris 13, France|
|Heresy and Rebellion in the Urban World of the Low Countries before the Reformation|
|Jan Dumolyn||Ghent University, Belgium|
|Did the 'Ulama Protest? Reports from Medieval Egypt and Syria|
|Amina Elbendary||American University in Cairo, Egypt|
|"Friars and cristos—this smells of the gallows": Religion and Urban Conflict in the Early Modern Spanish World|
|Igor Knezevic||University of Pennsylvania, United States of America|
|From Natural Religion to Civil Society: The Theological Context of Political Discourse in Naples (1694-1702)|
|Nicholas Francis Mithen||European University Institute, Italy|
Social scientists emphasize that women’s empowerment and economic development are closely interrelated and that, within this relationship, women’s abilities to participate in credit markets is of particular importance (Yunus 2008). Consequently, scholars have been encouraged to investigate this connection from a historical perspective. However, female involvement in credit markets and the gendered aspects of credit have been almost wholly ignored in studies of premodern finance. Those studies which do exist, have demonstrated that women’s participation in preindustrial credit networks was nevertheless considerable, especially in urban centers where trade was intense. Yet these studies remain limited – both in number and scope – by either focusing predominantly on certain periods and places (early modern England), or on certain groups (wealthy widows or Jewish women).
Credit was not only vital to the urban economy, it was also deeply embedded in social relations. Due to the high density of non-kinship ties in cities, trust was the foundation of creditworthiness. This importance of extrafamilial associations enabled urban women to play key roles outside the domestic sphere, including in credit networks. Moreover, it made individual reputation paramount when trying to obtain credit. Exploring credit thus allows to reassess gendered dimensions of reputation, in line with recent studies that have questioned the correlation of female reputation with sexual behavior as opposed to male reputation with economic status.
This session, therefore, invites scholars to further challenge traditional views of credit markets and creditworthiness in premodern cities. It aims to advance scholarly understanding of credit in three ways: 1) how various economic, social and cultural contexts influenced the role of gender in credit relationships; 2) what female participation in credit markets meant for urban economies and communities; and 3) how women’s involvement in credit markets contributed to their economic possibilities and reputation. By bringing together scholars working on a variety of cities in Europe and beyond, this session endeavors to reach a hitherto missing comparative understanding of premodern gender and credit.
We encourage scholars to explore the following themes, especially from a geographically or chronologically comparative perspective:
– Comparisons of women’s and men’s involvement in formal and informal credit markets (e.g. use of credit instruments, composition of credit networks, financial strategies);
– Gender boundaries of creditworthiness, reputation and sociability;
– Women’s participation in credit networks and their socioeconomic standing both within and without the domestic sphere;
– The relationship between gender, credit and economic roles (e.g. involvement in business, trade, labour opportunities);
|Christian elite women and micro-credit in Marseille (1380-1430)|
|Laure-Hélène Gouffran||Aix-Marseille Université, France|
|'A strange kynde of wooman': creditworthiness, belonging and citizenship in early modern London|
|Claire Ashley Benson||University of York, United Kingdom|
|Moneylending, spinsterdom and gentility in seventeenth century Hereford|
|Judith Spicksley||University of York, United Kingdom|
|Women in the credit markets of Uppsala during the 1730s|
|Jezzica Israelsson||Uppsala University, Sweden|
|Weaving webs of gold: women in informal credit networks in eighteenth century Hermannstadt (Sibiu)|
|Oana Valentina Sorescu-Iudean||University of Regensburg, Germany|
|Women's Credit Relations in Two Eighteenth-century Coastal Towns in Finland|
|Tiina Hemminki; Sofia Gustafsson||University of Jyväskylä, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland|
|Gender, survival strategies and microfinance institutions in southern Europe. Barcelona 1750-1800|
|Montserrat Carbonell-Esteller||University of Barcelona, Spain|
|Elite women and networks of urban commercial credit in Britain and Sweden, c.1760-1820|
|Jon Stobart; Johanna Ilmakunnas||Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom; University of Helsinki, Finland|
|'"Their Words Will Pass in Equal Credit": Gender and Credit in Colonial America|
|Kim Todt||University of Louisiana at Lafayette, United States of America|
M08. Urban Hierarchy: The Interaction Between Towns and Cities in Europe in Late Medieval and Early Modern Times
Urban hierarchy means a new study approach that focuses on the reciprocal concurrence of relationships between urban centers, their complementarity, opposition, support and ongoing collaboration. The goal is to go beyond the single analysis of a city and focus on the interaction between towns and cities and to distinguish their dynamics and the degree of specialization within a political framework. The study requires us to start from small-scale regional frameworks, in which towns and cities interact and are defined, as the step prior to analysis of the entire kingdom. To this end, the session takes on new challenges and hopes to achieve the following objectives: in the first place, to broaden the research to the sphere of urbanized European territories; secondly, to introduce the political question of the “capital city” and the location of the court in the territory, not only as a political decision, but as the culminating point in the urban rivalry for royal favor that was originated in late Middle Ages in some cases; finally, the chronological framework is extended until the Early Modern Age, when some European cities were established as the capital of their kingdom. The final objective is to provide a comprehensive historical analysis as urban history requires, open to the advantages of interdisciplinarity and the contributions of the international researchers that will take part in the session.
The processes of urban hierarchization are not only vital for observing the dynamics of cities, but also for studying in depth the response capabilities of the urban systems in the face of new challenges and stimuli. These aspects of the historical analysis of cities are still quite unexplored and, therefore, they will receive a great deal of attention in our session. The initial regional frameworks will not exclude small towns and rural centers since, even though they may look less potentially relevant, they might display greater specific development. Consequently, every analysis option that makes it possible to evaluate the urban potential in each particular case, regarding different opportunities for development (including concurrence, alliances and dominion), will be considered. Thanks to a renewed methodology and special attention to the empirical basis, it will be possible to improve our knowledge of the urban systems of European regions at the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Early Modern Era, shedding light on some aspects of the medieval past that will also influence other scientific areas of humanities.
|Urban hierarchies and the institutional fabric of late-medieval European towns|
|Arie van Steensel||University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Rouen, pôle urbain et centre de consommation|
|Anne Kucab||Université Paris Sorbonne, France|
|Town of Kolín nad Labem and its Communication Horizons in the Late Middle Ages|
|Jan Vojtisek||Université Paris-Sorbonne, France; Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Czech Republic|
|Rethinking Madrid during XVIth Century. An approach.|
|David Alonso García||Universidad Complutense, Spain|
|Urban Networks "in Defense of the Realm": Castilian Cities in Valladolid's Orbit of Influence (1504-1520)|
|María Ángeles Martín Romera||Ludwig Maximilians Universität München, Germany|
|Le réseau erfurtois à la fin du Moyen Age : une construction politique en marge du seigneur|
|Morwenna Coquelin||EHESS, France|
|Domination territoriale et défense des autonomies locales. Quelques éléments sur la place des seigneuries citadines dans les réseaux urbains régionaux (Italie centrale, fin du Moyen Âge)|
|Jean-Baptiste Delzant||Aix-Marseille Université, France|
|Towns and cities in the Kingdom of Naples: the Campanian area in 14th-16th cent.|
|Francesco Senatore||Università Federico II di Napoli, Italy|
|Towns and cities in the State of Milan in the 15th-16th Centuries. Towards a new balance|
|Andrea Gamberini||University of Milan, Italy|
|Rebellion, Hierarchy and Power. The Struggle for Prestige between Cities and Towns of Castile (Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries)|
|Óscar López Gómez||Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain|
|The interaction Between Bohemian Towns and Cities of Central Europe in Early Modern Times of 16th and Early 17th centuries|
|Jana Vojtíšková||University of Hradec Králové, Czech Republic|
M09. Inner City Redevelopment 1300–1800: Transformations of the Structure and Appearance of Pre-modern Towns
The dynamism of pre-modern towns is often ignored in urban and architectural history. Many authors unquestioningly assume that the structure of pre-modern towns did not change once the successive phases of urban expansion and the related building booms ended. Recent research however has shown that most medieval and early modern town centres were (in some cases radically) adapted to new conditions. The rise and decay of economic activities did not only affect the edges of towns, but also their centres. In any town that either grows or shrinks, the dynamics of urbanization will lead to the emergence, relocation or demolition of buildings, facilities and functions, and morphological transformations. If needed, complexes of buildings or larger areas were transformed as functional change took place, or the urban structure was adapted to new flows of people, produce or merchandise.
In Reformed north-western Europe, the structure and appearance of many towns changed considerably when large complexes, such as convents or charitable institutions, were secularised and redeveloped, while the Counter Reformation in catholic Europe let convents expand at the cost of housing and open areas. Capital cities were affected by project development by the courts, such as the grands boulevards, places royales and places ducales in France, while the Golden Ages of Antwerp and many cities in Holland stimulated the commercial development of new streets, housing blocks and the subdivision of existing areas.
In this session, we consider the pre-modern town as a dynamic structure or even as a palimpsest, scraped off again and again under the influence of functional change. We welcome papers that address any of the following questions.
• What were the causes of pre-modern urban change and what was their nature?
• How did social, economic, cultural change influence specific areas?
• Were these transformations autonomous projects in specific areas or were they influenced by their urban surroundings?
• Were the effects of transformations radiating in their vicinity?
For the sake of comparison we are looking for case studies that surpass the scale of a single building and focus on large complexes of buildings, streets or inner-city areas.
|Enterprise and Urban Development in Medieval Hull and Bristol: An Analysis of the Urban Land Market|
|Catherine Mary Casson; Mark Christopher Casson||University of Manchester, United Kingdom; University of Reading, United Kingdom|
|Structural transformations of a growing capital: Copenhagen c. 1500-1800|
|Jørgen Mikkelsen||The Danish National Archives, Denmark|
|Ruining, reconstructing and reshaping – the transformation of townscape in Turku (Finland) since 1300|
|Liisa Seppänen||University of Turku, Finland|
|Urban Redevelopment & Public Health in the Late Medieval Low Countries|
|Janna Coomans||University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Redevelopment in Monastic Towns of Late Medieval and Early Modern England|
|Anna Anisimova||Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation|
|Continuity in change. A comparison between the centres of Bologna and Strasbourg (13th-16th centuries)|
|Colin Arnaud||Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany|
|A Reading of Historic Palermo’s Morphology (17th-18th Centuries)|
|Valeria Viola||Independent Scholar, Italy|
M10. Spaces on the Urban Margin and Periphery in the Pre-industrial Period/ Marges et périphéries urbaines en Europe (Moyen Âge/Temps Modernes)
The city and its rural hinterland, and their relations, have been the subject of many studies over many years, but the hybrid spaces between them have often been neglected in the pre-industrial period (there is no Suburban History as for the modern era). Too often urban historians have focussed their attention on the spaces within the city walls or limits. The plurality of terms used to describe these hybrid spaces – suburbs, ribbon development, faubourg, banlieue, arrière-pays, périurban, infra-urban and rurban spaces, marges, périphéries, abords, franges – highlights the difficulty that historians have had in identifying and defining them. Such spaces appear unclear with fluid contours, destined eventually to be integrated with the urban community but sharing only some features with the urban centre. Nevertheless many people considered townsmen resided in districts outside the urban ramparts and many others living inside them went to work outside them during the day. Again the city did not function cut off within its walled enclosure and whatever the extent and importance of these marginal areas they were an essential part of the urban world, excercising complementary economic, social and other functions.
By focussing on the urban periphery we can investigate its specific character and its particular economic, social and environmental features. Among the questions we need to discuss in this session are: was the periphery a special type of development, neither truly urban or rural? what were its relations with the city? how can these marginal spaces be defined? what was their landscape and built envioronment? what was their economic role? their social structure? their image and identity? It is also important to examine changes over time – before the transformative impact of the industrial city.
To explore these questions we welcome papers with different approaches: archaeological, environmental, planning, legal, geographical, economic and social. A wider comparative perspective will be valued. Through the study of the urban periphery during the medieval and early modern periods we aim to escape the conventional dichotomy of town-countryside and to construct a typology of spaces on the margin of the pre-industrial city.
Alors que la ville et le territoire ainsi que les relations entre les deux font l’objet de recherches nombreuses et anciennes, les espaces hybrides qui les séparent, sont encore trop souvent négligés pour la période pré-industrielle alors qu’ils existent dans chaque ville. Qu’ils portent leur regard depuis la ville ou depuis la campagne, les historiens n’étudient presque toujours les villes qu’à l’intérieur de leurs enceintes. La pluralité terminologique auxquels les historiens ont recours pour les nommer: faubourg, banlieue, arrière-pays, suburbain, périurbain, infra-urbain, rurbain, marges, périphéries, abords, franges montre à l’évidence la difficulté qu’il y a désigner ces lieux périphériques, à définir leurs limites et à les identifier car ils apparaissent comme des nébuleuses aux contours fluides et toujours mouvants, destinées à être intégrées à plus ou moins long terme au centre urbain et dont les différents éléments qui les composent n’ont quelquefois en commun que le même pôle urbain. C’est oublier que beaucoup de personnes, considérées comme habitants de la ville, resident dans des zones situées hors des remparts, et que beaucoup d’autres logeant à l’intérieur de l’enceinte vont travailler à l’extérieur dans la journée. C’est oublier aussi que la ville ne vit pas en vase clos à l’intérieur de son enceinte et que quelles soient leur extension et leur importance, ces marges sont des espaces consubstantiels à la ville et constituent donc de véritables compléments des centres urbains avec des fonctionnalités économiques et sociales.
S’arrêter sur cet espace périphérique, s’interroger sur sa spécificité, ses composantes urbanistiques, économiques et sociales et son évolution au cours du temps, permet d’aborder des questions fondamentales: y a-t-il une entité qui ne soit ni urbaine ni rurale? quels sont alors ses liens avec la ville? comment la définir? comment la caractériser en termes de paysages et d’environnement bâti, de fonctionnalités économiques, de sociétés, de représentations, de valeurs des lieux, et ce, de façon diachronique au Moyen Âge et à l’époque moderne quand la majorité des villes était close longue avant que l’industrialisation ne les transforme.
On souhaite traiter cette question historique en intégrant différentes approches : archéologique, environnementale, urbanistique, juridique, géographique, économique et sociologique. C’est donc tout à la fois l’organisation des abords immédiats de la ville que son évolution au cours du moyen Âge et de l’époque moderne temps que nous proposons d’étudier dans cette session en rompant la dichotomie ville – campagne et de sa périphérie et en envisageant une typologie de ces espaces en marge.
|La ville en puzzle. Continuités et discontinuités entre Bruxelles et sa périphérie au Moyen Âge|
|Paulo Charruadas; Bram Vannieuwenhuyze||Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; Universiteit Gent, KU Leuven, Belgium|
|Une ville « perméable » ? L’espace de transition de l’urbain au rural autour d’une ville au XIIIe siècle|
|Catherine Xandry||Université de Limoges, France|
|Les périphéries de Paris au XIVe siècle : essai d’application de la théorie géographique aux sources médiévales|
|Boris Bove||Université de Paris 8, France|
|A periphery in the heart of the medieval city? Urban juridical enclaves in Europe and the Islamic World|
|Peter Stabel; Malika Dekkiche||University of Antwerp, Belgium|
|Les fondouks chrétiens dans les villes musulmanes : des espaces périphériques ?|
|Dominique Valérian||Université Lyon 2, France|
|Medieval Monastic Parcel Relics : Saint-Martin-des-Champs and Saint-Germain-des Prés Aspects of urban land improvement|
|Preston Martin Perluss||LARHRA University of Grenoble Alps, France|
|Spatial margins and social marginality in fifteenth-century London|
|Charlotte Berry||Institute of Historical Research, University of London, United Kingdom|
|Civic spaces outside of the city : shooting ranges in Germany (15th-16th centuries)|
|Jean-Dominique André Delle Luche||Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France|
|Urban periphery and the creation of a civic identity in eighteenth-century Haarlem|
|Carolien Boender||Leiden University, the Netherlands|
|Policing the suburbs of the fortified cities in the 18th century. The difficult securization of the suburban military space between city, fortifications and countryside|
|Catherine Denys||University of Lille, France|
The panel focuses on mobility and insertion in the cities of the Mediterranean area, during the early modern age. Since the Ancient times, Mediterranean cities are centers for commercial and cultural exchanges, and crossroads of migratory streams. These “sedimented” cities have a long tradition of multi-cultural society and reception of foreigners while remaining, to this day pivotal centers for international circulation and migration, and gateways to Europe.
By using the notion of “citadinité”, the panel aims to go beyond « citizenship » and to explore the multiple forms of belonging to a city, by taking into account not only settled individuals, but also temporary residents. Indeed, citadinité is understood as set of competences (know-how), knowledge and practices which characterize the fact of being a city-dweller and of belonging to a city. The concept of citadinité is a key element in understanding the sense of ‘belongingness’ in the city. Citadinité challenges the definitions established by legislation and encompasses awareness, knowledge and daily interactions that are essential for belonging in the urban environment.
Thanks to this notion, the objective of the panel is twofold: on the one hand, we aim at shedding new light on urban participation of those people who are not citizens, and who haven’t the status to claim this right : ordinary people, labour migrants, lower classes. On the other hand, the accent will be put on those everyday practices that make individuals’ belonging to the city.
The panel will shed new light on how institutional and community environments, social and familial networks, and cultural apprenticeships fostered a sense of ‘citizenship’ and identification with the city and its social structures in its inhabitants. A special attention will be paid to the relations between citadinité and the urban space, and on the role played by city’s inhabitants (whether permanent or temporary) in its territorial development.
We invite contribution on the following topics (Mediterranean cities, 14th to 18th centuries):
– Practices of inclusion and access to urban resources
– Participation of “ordinary people” in the city’s life
– Spatial scales of urban belonging
– Impact of mobility on the urban space
|La fabrique collective de la citadinité à Marseille (XVIIIes.)|
|Jean-Baptiste Xambo||Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy|
|Les confréries et la « citadinité » à Avignon à la fin du Moyen Âge|
|Zhao Lv||Université de Wuhan, China / EHESS, France|
|Maritime mobilities, labour and social insertion of foreign sailors in Marseille during the 18th century|
|Claire Boer||Aix-Marseille Université, France|
|'Belongingness' and Mobility. The Agency of Swiss Italian Artisans in Turin, 17th-18th Century|
|Marco Schnyder||University of Geneva, Switzerland|
|On the fringes of the city. Social and religious networks in the suburbs of Naples (17th-18th centuries)|
|Domenico Cecere||Aix-Marseille Université, France|
|Le chirurgien dans la cité pestiférée : entre exclusion et promotion sociale, Marseille 1720-1722|
|Jamel El Hadj||Centre Norbert Elias, France|
Over the last three decades, consumption has become a major topic of scholarly investigation. Both within the social sciences and humanities, it is a booming field. Historically, much light has been shed on the eighteenth century as a period of a ‘consumer revolution’ or a ‘birth of a consumer society’, as people began to accumulate more and more consumer goods and personal possessions. In discussing these changes, scholars have highlighted the role that global goods (cotton textiles, cocoa, tea, tobacco, indigo, gum arabic, etc), and the growing consumer demand for them, played in spurring these changes.
As stimulating as this research has been, most of it has been confined to developments in Colonial America, England, France, and the Low Countries. Within Europe, these studies have often concentrated on metropolises such as London, Paris, or Amsterdam – cities at the forefront of these changes. How, when, and whether similar developments played out in other European, or global, urban communities remains under researched. Our goal with this session is to explore changes in consumption practices and the development of consumer societies in other European cities. With such an approach, we hope to cast these developments in a more holistic light, and bring a pan-European focus to the idea of an eighteenth-century consumer revolution.
In particular, we are interested in themes and questions such as:
• Consumption patterns in Southern, Central, Northern, or Eastern European cities. Which elements of a ‘consumer society’ can be detected in these regions? Did changes in consumption patterns occur, and if so, when? What were people consuming? Which ‘global’ goods found resonance in these cities? How wide-spread through society were these changing consumption patterns?
• Comparative work between European cities. What kind of comparisons in consumption patterns can be drawn between Western European cities and Southern, Central, Northern, or Eastern European cities? Temporally how did consumption patterns vary between other European urban communities?
• Broader issues surrounding consumption. What role did urban areas play in these changes? What role did laws (eg. sumptuary legislation) play in changing consumption patterns? How are changes to consumption related to broader social, legal, economic, and political developments?
|Red caps from Bruges: the origin of Danish townwomen’s caps in the sixteenth century|
|Camilla Luise Dahl; Isis Sturtewagen||Centre for Textile Research, Denmark; Leiden University, The Netherlands|
|Furnishings and Finery: an Edinburgh Merchant Household in an Age of Global Exchange, c.1654-1674|
|Ashley J. Sims||University of Alberta, Canada|
|Global Consumerism in a Southwest German Home Town (1750-1850): Tracing Consumer Patterns in Sattelzeit Göppingen|
|Dennis Anthony Frey Jr.||Lasell College, United States of America|
|Global goods regulated domestically: Tobacco consumption and tobacco regulation in the Habsburg Monarchy in the era of Enlightened Absolutism|
|Aris Kafantogias||University of Vienna, Austria|
|Printed cotton and cheap silk. Asian imports and changes in women's apparel in the Venetian mainland, late XVIIth- late XVIIIth|
|Francesco Maria Vianello||University of Padova, Italy|
|The birth of a consumer society in a new-born state, Greece 1834-1850|
|Lydia Sapounaki-Dracaki; Maria-Luiza Tzoya Moatsou||Panteion University, Athens, Greece; University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece|
|Luxury goods, consumption and social life through the lens of a Mid-19th Century Romanian urban household|
|Nicoleta Roman||''Nicolae Iorga'' Institute of History, Romanian Academy|
M13. Gender in Maritime, Trading and Imperial towns: European and Atlantic urban Communities, c. 1650–1850
How were the dynamics of gender implicated in European and Atlantic trading communities, and what were the distinctive characteristics of the interplay of gender and the town in these trading communities? Did the elaboration of Atlantic worlds and associated growth of port towns impact gender roles and relations according to any identifiable patterns?
The session will examine the dynamics of gender in New and Old World towns with high levels of international /intra-’national’ mobility. This builds on work being done by the international Gender in European Towns Network led by Dr Simonton, and the AHRC funded International Research Network, The Global City: Past and Present for which Dr Hart is Principal Investigator. These networks share an interest in the mobility of peoples in and out of towns for trade and in the use of space in such towns. Both networks stress the importance of examining this issue in a broadly comparative context. Towns were central to migratory patterns and crucial in the transmission of ideas, while gender is fundamental to the ways many towns shaped themselves; e.g. gender tensions, over trade and political rights influenced the formal and informal economy and polity. With the physical growth of towns and the creation of new public spaces and new elites, established gender roles were challenged by new hierarchies.
This session wishes to examine the implications of such transient activities in the context of gender dynamics, not only by identifying who these people were, why and how they moved in and out of towns, but also the impact of such activities on the towns themselves. It wishes to consider whether there was a distinctive character to towns with a maritime and/or international trading character, and how this interacted with issues of gender. Papers which deal with issues such as the built environment, socio-political implications and commercial imperatives are encouraged, including comparative papers as well as those focusing on a single town within the European and Atlantic nexus. Themes could include, but are not specifically limited to,
• Servicing the international community, either through trade and/or within the town
• Dynamics of maritime/port/naval communities
• Gendered urban spaces
• The character of trade and implications for gender
• Impact of change in trading opportunities and networks and the implications for gender
• Re-imagining the community as a result of international connections
|Gender and the Market Place in the Early British American Town|
|Emma Hart||University of St Andrews, United Kingdom|
|Fittie, the Harbour and the Town: characterising women’s economic opportunities and challenges in maritime towns|
|Deborah Simonton||University of Southern Denmark, Denmark|
|Noble Woman's Trade in Town|
|Niina Lehmusjärvi||University of Turku, Finland|
|Gender and the Character of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Glasgow|
|Catriona Macdonald Macleod||University of Glasgow, United Kingdom|
|Gendered networks in early modern Dutch harbor towns. A comparison of Cape Town, New Amsterdam and Rotterdam during the seventeenth century|
|Maarten F. Van Dijck||Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands|
|Landward experience of shipping business. Seamen’s wives and their socio-economic agency in Finnish harbor towns, c. 1830-1850|
|Pirita Frigren||University of Jyväskylä, Finland|
|Sex, Sailors and Scottish Cities|
|Katie Elisabeth Barclay||University of Adelaide, Australia|
|Urban Workers, Household Women: Nurses at Plymouth Naval Hospital 1778-1800|
|Erin Elizabeth Spinney||University of Saskatchewan, Canada|
|"Cherchez la femme!" A gender perspective in the transnational history of Rio de Janeiro and Lisbon in the 19th century|
|Catarina Caetano da Rosa||Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany|
Liminality – a term originating from ethnology and anthropology – describes states of transition, or threshold states, as experiences, rites and practices. This view, usually directed at humans, could be applied to all humans and non-humans of the urban world. According to Donaldson and Kymlicka (Zoopolis, Oxford 2011), especially most animals living in the city, are “Liminal Animals Denizens”. They are between wildness and domestication as well as nature and culture. The model of the ‘Liminal Animal’ will be examined in this panel using various case studies of urban animals. The focus will be less on re-narrating long-outdated dichotomies, but rather on pointing out the numerous coexistences and transitions by means of the figure of Liminal Lives. What should be shown by this is the coexistence of human and animal as well as the coexistence of animals and other animals. However, using the example of individual animals, one can also show the numerous transitions within the role of a specific animal.
Furthermore, it should be asked whether liminal animal lives repeat the same patterns of urban liminality that can be found with people, or whether different, new liminalities are formed between humans and animals. These leading questions of our session direct the view towards the city as the space, in which human und non-human species met, clashed, came into conflict, in a way which was fundamentally different from the model of agrarian or wildlife human-animal relations.
|Canaries & Pigeons on the Threshold: An Eighteenth-Century Case Study of Liminal Animal Lives in a Southwest German Hometown|
|Dennis Anthony Frey Jr.||Lasell College, United States of America|
|Between wild and domestic, animal and human: the problem of the 'stray' in the Victorian city|
|Philip Howell||University of Cambridge, United Kingdom|
|Backyard birds & human-made houses: On the edge of the wild in 19th & 20th century cities|
|Dolly Jørgensen||Luleå University of Technology, Sweden|
|The Elimination of the Butcher Dogs|
|Annette Leiderer||Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany|
|Liminal Lives in the New World – Spanish Horses in New Spanish Town|
|Isabelle Schuerch||University of Konstanz, Germany|
|Escaping (in) the City: Courtly Hunting Practices in and around 17th Century Paris|
|Nadir Weber||EPHE Paris, University of Constance, University of Bern, Switzerland|
|Antisocial Animals in the British Atlantic World: Liminality and Nuisance in Glasgow and New York City, 1660-1760|
|Andrew Wells||Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Germany|
|Liminality of the Post-War Zoo: Animals in Berlin 1955-1961|
|Mieke Roscher||Universität Kassel, Germany|
Urban environmental history, while having elaborated major aspects of physical transformation of nature due to industrial urbanization and the ‘networking of cities’, has tended to mark off rather sharply the modern period of technology-driven transformations of urban nature from pre-industrial societies, which were often depicted as being rather undisturbed and pristine. Meanwhile, also for the early modern (and medieval) period, the pervasiveness of environmental changes effected in and through cities has been highlighted (Barles, Joergensen, Knoll et al.), and the singularity of the caesura linked with the transition to fossil fuels has been challenged. On the other hand, recent literature on the Anthropocene – the human-dominated geological epoch (Steffen, Crutzen, McNeill et al.) – once again claims a profound rupture in human/nature relations between the pre-modern and the modern.
In the light of these conflicting perspectives, the aim of this session will be to bridge the traditional gap between historiographical approaches analyzing the transformation of the urban environment for the early modern and the modern period. Papers presented in this session should apply concepts such as urban metabolism, ANT and the concepts of ‘socio-natural sites’ (Winiwarter/ Schmid; Schatzki) – all starting from the permanent ‘coproduction’ of the social and the natural. They should aim to tease out continuities and ruptures in technologies as well as scientific concepts and popular assumptions, to highlight power relations which were linked and altered by new ways of organizing and safeguarding urban metabolism. They should ask for path dependencies, which developed unwillingly and unwittingly, only to confront urban societies as new challenges and materialized manifestations of former decisions. Further questions should address issues such as
– when and how did cities become the dominant places, where new society-nature relations originate?
– How did the urban ‘production of nature’ differ from the non-urban?
The sessions further develops an international and interdisciplinary discourse on ‘Urban Agency’ which has been conducted over the last years and will present some results of this research initiative. We will concentrate on European cities between 1500-2000 and encourage submissions with an international and cross-epoch focus.
|Potosí as Bio-geo-social Assemblage: Metabolism of an Early Modern Extractive Capitalist World City|
|Thomas A Abercrombie||New York University, United States of America|
|Urbanizing Vienna’s Waters I: Colonizing the floodplains 17th century to present|
|Friedrich Hauer; Severin Hohensinner||Vienna University of Technology, Austria; University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria|
|Urbanizing Vienna’s Waters II: Long-term socio-natural transformation of urban rivers and water management institutions through watermills|
|Christina Spitzbart-Glasl; Christoph Sonnlechner||Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria; Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv, Austria|
|Meat for Cities in Early Modern and Modern Times. The Case of Barcelona|
|Manel Guàrdia; José Luis Oyón||Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain|
|The role of urban epidemics in reshaping the ‘environmental regime’ of Buenos Aires' meat industry (1867-1874)|
|Antonio Carbone||Freie Universität Berlin, Germany|
|The portable nature: Italians, migrations, cities and horticulture. Urban cultivation as a peculiar research tool for urban environmental history|
|Gilberto Mazzoli||University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy|
The modern period has been marked with repeated changes in the boundaries between countries. It was due to addition or exclusion of territories, integration or split of states, merger of federations and confederations and collapse of such associations. Sometimes changes of the borders were accepted by the international community, but sometimes only an actual change of borders occurred. It happened when the boundary divided the city, but after a while the divided parts of the city were united again. As a result of the split the united state cities which had been provincial before, could turn into capitals, and after integration A capital could become a provincial town. In any case, these processes had affected not only those cities that changed their “owners”, but also the city, located near the appearing or disappearing border. Due to the alteration in the borders there were changes in transport systems, national and religious structure of the population, social and political conditions of life, the law, the content of civil liberties, tax and financial system, etc.
The aim of the section is to consider the problem of adaptation of cities in modern times (XVI-XX centuries) to the changing borders in Europe and beyond. It invites papers to examine specific examples of cities that were affected by changes of borders both directly and indirectly. The section should answer the following questions:
1. Are there any general patterns of influence of changes in the boundaries on the cities, that had been affected by this process?
2. Is it possible to talk about a certain zone on both sides of the border, in which cities were particularly badly affected by the process of changing the borders?
3. Is it possible to talk about the regularity in the approach of the authorities of different countries to the cities, affected by the process of changing the borders?
4. Did these cities, affected by the process of changing the boundaries, play themselves any role in this process?
Papers could be built on network theories, innovative methodological approaches, on interdisciplinary and comparative research. We invite researches that consider questions on economy, transport network, social structures, ideology problems concerning adapting the city in the world of changing boundaries.
|Towns of South West Russia in the XVI-XVIIth centuries|
|Aleksandr Dubrovskii||Bryansk State University, Russian Federation|
|Timisoara and the Shift from an Ottoman City to a Hapsburg Fortress|
|Diana Mihaela Belci; Sorin Emilian Ciurariu||Politehnica University Timisoara, Romania; Timisoara City Hall, Urban Planning Department|
|Money adaptation and the emergence of charitable consciousness in the Eastern Mediterranean: the case of Hermoupolis, 1850-1890|
|Yiannis Kokkinakis||University of Crete, Greece|
|Impact assessment of modernity on historical cities of Iran- Case Study: Yazd|
|Seyed Milad Taheri; Zeynab Ramesht||Iran University of Science and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran; Art university of Isfahan|
|Adapting Changchun to the changing boundaries: Ethnic identities and urban image in North East China under the Japanese control|
|Rosa Tamborrino; Liu Daping||Politecnico di Torino, Italy; Harbin Institute of Technology, China|
|Urban Change in Breslau in the Face of Shifting Borders|
|Sarah M. Schlachetzki||New York University, United States of America|
|World centers of Russian Diaspora Localization at the XX century and cross-border dialogue|
|Natalia Ostashova||Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics, Russian Federation|
|Small towns’ developmental path in Eastern and Central Europe|
|Réka Horeczki||CERS Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary|
|Inner Railroad of Santiago and Industrial Heritage, an opportunity of revitalization|
|Marcela Pizzi||University of Chile, Chile|
Legal pluralism is usually understood in correlation with colonization and the imposition of a European judicial system over the existent, indigenous legal system. The definition of legal pluralism is however more complex and has been described recently as ‘a formation of historically occurring patterns of jurisdictional complexity and conflict’ (Benton and Ross, 2013). As such, legal pluralism is not confined to the Empires: legal pluralism existed also in continental Europe, especially in the cities, where men and women could use different courts to settle their grief. The European states and the cities in particular were built upon different legal traditions, combining local, royal, ecclesiastical and seigniorial jurisdictions (Ross and Stern, 2013), which could often legislate over the same issues. This session seeks to highlight the agency of complainants and defendants and the opportunities at hand for the population in European and colonial cities to use different legal systems to reach an agreement. Access and uses of justice is often associated with political and socio-economic elites, but this session is particularly interested in comparing the agency of various groups, including elites, middle classes, slaves, indigenous population, and women. In addition, it aims to reveal processes of globalization of justice by comparing access to and uses of justice in European cities and colonial cities.
Papers on the following subjects are particularly welcome:
– How could complainants and defendants use legal pluralism to their advantage?
– What was the role of local dignitaries in encouraging or preventing legal pluralism?
– How did legal pluralism reinforce the colonial urban project?
– How did the transition between customary laws and penal code occur?
– How and in what ways were European legal systems in cities transferred to colonial cities?
The large time and geographical spans of this session encourage historians, geographers and criminologists to participate in order to draw a comparative perspective on this subject.
|Criminal Justice and Customary Law in Early Colonial India|
|James Jaffe||University of Wisconsin, United States of America|
|The limits of pluralism: Algerian merchants in European courts in the later 18th century|
|Michael Talbot||University of Greenwich, United Kingdom|
|The Turmoil of Legal Regimes and Spatial Organization of Cities in South African Apartheid|
|Kaius Tuori||University of Helsinki, Finland|
M18. Conceiving and Elaborating the Landscapes of Power: Comparative Perspectives on Capital Cities, 19th–21st centuries
The contemporary world is formed by almost two hundred states that are represented through entities defined as “capital cities.” Unitary states usually have one capital city while federal states may have several ones, organized according to an administrative and symbolic hierarchy. Since the 1850s a number of cities, designated as or transformed into capitals increased dramatically following the formation of nation-states and the decolonization process. Canberra, New Delhi, Chandigarh, and Brasília are the most known examples, but many other capital cities have been designed or built in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In the twenty-first century transformation and re-dislocation of capital cities did not become a thing of past: recently, Naypyidaw replaced Yangon as the capital of Myanmar. Contrary to the predictions, globalization did not contribute to a decay of capital cities either: various economic and demographic data demonstrate that they still are the most vibrant, cultured, and diverse spaces of their respective states. A diversity of definitions and approaches towards capital cities suggest that they do not have immutable characteristics; they are neither determined by a given political system, nor have a fixed administrative status. Rather they manifest entangled relationships between urban spaces, political intentions, and social projects.
What makes a city a capital? How did the models of “capitality” and representations of power and national identity change or evolve in last two centuries? Does the postcolonial condition necessarily invoke a reinvention or a transformation of a capital city? Besides political and administrative functions, what are the urban planning elements mostly characterizing a capital city? What are the design principles and the most frequent urban planning models for the elaboration of capital cities in last one hundred and fifty years? Through an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural analysis we propose to rethink architectural, political, and intellectual projects of the societies who established the new and/or transform the existant capital cities in order to understand how their aspirations, utopias, and political compromises were reflected in the elaboration of capital cities and how these were translated into their forms and spatial design. This panel aspires to examine both the architectural and urban character of contemporary capital cities and the intricate political, economic, and social motivations that bring them into being. We welcome junior and senior scholars working in various disciplines and geographic areas (not limited to Europe) to submit proposals for papers in English or in French by October 31, 2015.
|« Belmopan. A new capital for a new nation » Nation et ethnicité à l’indépendance|
|Elisabeth Cunin||IRD, France|
|“The city of Brasilia lies outside of the city”: the construction of the satellite cities of the Pilot Project, 1957-1970|
|Maria Fernanda Derntl||Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo - UnB, Brazil|
|Brazil: one century, five new Capital cities|
|Ricardo Trevisan; Sylvia Ficher||University of Brasilia, Brazil|
|Minervas, modernization, and the transformation of Guatemala City: 1870-1930|
|Florencia Quesada-Avendaño||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|Representing the Republican State: Building Beijing as a Capital City, 1911-1928|
|Xusheng Huang||ETH Zurich, Switzerland|
|New African Capital cities: Luanda and Maputo|
|Ana Tostões||Docomomo International, Tecnico-Lisbon University, Portugal|
|Empire's Broken Terrain: Pretoria, Canberra and New Delhi|
|Christopher Vernon||University of Western Australia, Australia|
|Reinventing Pest-Buda as Budapest. A New Capital City|
|Paolo Cornaglia||Politecnico di Torino, Italy|
|Building the New Capital Cities of Southeastern Europe: The Cases of Sofia and Sarajevo in Late 19th–Early 20th Century|
|Ivaylo Nachev||Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria|
|"Building a capital city" An Historical Geography perspective on the case of the city of Jerusalem, 1947 – 1967|
|Assaf Selzer||University of Haifa, Israel|
|New York City, World Capital|
|Aliki Economides||CIRM, McGill University, Canada|
In the opening lines of his massive Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo World, 1783-1939, James Bellich presents a challenge to historians eager to reinterpret cities in a transnational framework: do cities like Chicago and Melbourne on opposite sides of the planet share characteristics by virtue of their foundation and political rule by white settlers intent on dwelling permanently upon lands forcibly taken from their indigenous inhabitants?
This panel will explore this question by calling upon scholars to reflect on the concept of “Settler Cities.” What defines such a city? Are their clear boundaries, or does the definition involve a subtle degrees of separation form the broader category of colonial city? Are there broad commonalities in the histories of these cities that merit singling them for scrutiny as a group? Are they best seen as a special subset of colonial cities or is there a way in which they expand or transcend that long-used concept? Are there webs of connections between these cities and between them and the imperial metropoles that make this concept especially useful as a subset of the new subfield of transnational urban history? What if we go beyond Bellich’s focus on the “Anglo World,” and consider Algiers, Elizabethvillle/Lubumbashi, Windhoek, Batavia, Jerusalem, and even Mexico City or Rio de Janeiro in the same universe as Cape Town, Chicago, Vancouver, San Francisco, Belfast, and Sydney? Are there non-western settler cities? Why did the settlers in some cities abandon their project of settlement while others stay, helping to cause some of the most intractable conflicts on earth?
Participants should not only bring their research on individual settler cities to the table, but also contemplate several themes underlying the concept of settler cities: especially dense connections and flows between these cities and between them and metropolitan hubs; the diversity of flows between these cities, including not only people, money, ideas, and urban practices, but also jurisprudential systems, organizational forms, urban economic structures, group identities, and political cultures; especially complex forms of urban politics that includes conflicts between settlers, between settlers and metropolitan governments as well as with indigenous people; real estate practices involving people who plan to invest in urban land for future generations unlike the more transient European populations of non-settler colonial cities; and interventions in urban spatial politics that include especially complex forms of segregation and law-of-conquest authoritarianism.
|Facing the Global Settler Colonial Present|
|Lorenzo Veracini||Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia|
|What is the “settler-colonial” city?|
|David W. Hugill||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|Settling Sapporo: Transience and Identity in Japan's First Colonial Capital|
|Michael Alan Thornton||Harvard University, United States of America|
|Locating Australia’s ‘national estate’: a transnational approach to urban heritage|
|James Phillip Lesh||University of Melbourne, Australia|
|Colonial networks, and transnational connections, twin forces in the shaping of a settler society|
|Sue Silberberg||University of Melbourne, Australia|
|Land, speculation and the early Nineteenth Century settler mentality|
|Kate Hislop||University of Western Australia, Australia|
|The Case of Jerusalem|
|Meir Margalit||Van Leer Institute- Jerusalem, Israel|
|Accounts of Israeli Settler Colonialism and the De-arabization of Palestine|
|Baligh Ben Taleb||University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States of America|
|Colonial Urbanism: Forging religio-national paradigms in Jerusalem’s New City|
|Wendy Ann Pullan||University of Cambridge, United Kingdom|
Until now the cities of Eastern and Southern Europe have mainly been looked at through the prism of migration and institutions of technology transfer (such as universities). Implicitly or explicitly this suggests a transfer of knowledge and practices from the center to the periphery and hence a clear epistemological hierarchy.
The panel proposed by the Herder-Institute (Germany) and the IMF-CSIC (Spain) would like to question this assumption. In order to do so we will focus on the exchanges in the areas of science, technology, medicine and urban planning between the cities of borderlands such as Southern and Eastern Europe.
How did knowledge but also actors and practices “travel” between cities such as Budapest, Tallin, Lemberg, Lisbon, Athens or Barcelona? Special attention will be paid to engineering sciences, which played an important role in the modernization of the architectural and infrastructural system of these “emerging” cities in the late 19th and early 20th century.
It will be crucial to highlight the dialectic interplay of national visions and desires (of aspiring nation states) and the internationalization of science and knowledge transfer in the first globalization around 1900. Certainly the metropolises such as Paris and London had an enormous impact on the urbanization of these cities. Yet at the same time these “second” or “peripheral” cities were practical enough to turn to each other in order to solve the similar problems they were facing in their urban development. The goal of this session is thus twofold: it will not only try to compare these “emerging” cities, but also to reconstruct the interurban network that existed between them.
|Small towns in Eastern and Southern Europe|
|Réka Horeczki||CERS Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary|
|Urban knowledge transfer between Eastern cities of Warsaw, Cracow and Lvov around 1900|
|Aleksander Lupienko||Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland|
|Transferring best practices: Eliel Saarinen between Tallinn, Helsinki and Budapest 1900-1914”|
|Eszter Gantner||Herder-Institute for Historical Research, Germany|
|Finnish architects as urban planners. Travelling agents and practices at the 1910’s|
|Emilia Karppinen||University of Turku, Finland|
|The role of Helsinki in Estonian agenda of modernising Tallinn at the beginning of the 20th century|
|Karin Hallas-Murula||Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia|
|“Central” speech, “peripheral” practices: how did Barcelona health agents use the European interurban network between 1931 and 1936?|
|Celia Miralles Buil||Université Lumière Lyon 2, France|
Exploring the construction of seaport cultures – a special certain local set of urban practices –,and the stories that support them, we aim to discover how coalitions of public and private elites together with port-related workers, citizens and tourists have created wide-spread support for the construction and transformation of seaports. Specifically we explore how politicians, corporate leaders and planners have balanced urban development and used heritage structures, architecture and urban form to develop a narrative about the past, present and future of each seaport that brings together broad swath of the population and that allows for acceptance and even celebration of large-scale, port related transformations that are upsetting for large parts of local populations. We argue that this seaport culture is promoted through festivals and events, artwork and media, advertisement, literature and music. Analysing the multiple implications of seaport cultures, the role of tangible and intangible heritage that supports it and their role in architectural and urban transformation today, will allow us to identify strategies for balanced urban transformation and for socially sustainable uses rather than abuses of the past, using interdisciplinary humanities-based research to inspire the future. It will also underscore the importance that arts and humanities disciplines have in providing insights for urban transformation.
This session asks: How and by whom is the tangible and intangible seaport culture constructed, that make port cities so adaptable? How have local elites and workers created a mindset that supports port development (a port culture) throughout the entire city and region that is wide-spread and long-standing? What and who are the main pillars of this port culture and how have they evolved over time? How are cultural phenomena remembered, presented and used to strengthen the identities of cities or cultural groups today? What are the pitfalls in heritage construction through professional and everyday publications, through films, arts and events in regard to heritage preservation?
Papers can build on different time frames, starting with the industrial revolution. They can be case studies, focus on infrastructure, seaport culture and heritage or include a comparative perspective. We invite researchers with different methodological and disciplinary approaches to contribute.
Please submit your abstract on the conference website and send it with a short resume and CV to the Session Convenors (below).
|Development and redevelopment in port cities in the Low Countries|
|Jaap Evert Abrahamse; Reinout Rutte||Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, the Netherlands; Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands|
|Voyaging through history: the Mayflower and seaport culture in 1920s Britain|
|Tom Hulme||University of London, United Kingdom|
|Re-Inventing a City´s Maritime History - Seaport culture in Bristol (GB) 1850-2000|
|Michael Toyka-Seid||Technical University Darmstadt, Germany|
|Buoys, rituals and beaches: the 20th century European marine|
|Gabriel Neil Gee||Franklin University, Switzerland|
|The urban meanings of sea|
|Pia Olsson||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|Between Local Identity, Commercialism, and Tourist Attraction: The Celebration of Hamburg’s “Port Anniversary” since 1977|
|Christoph Strupp||Forschungsstelle für Zeitgeschichte in Hamburg, Germany|
|Helsinki Politics of Port Heritage. Preservation in the Currents of Capital and Technology|
|Anja Kervanto Nevanlinna||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|The Impact of Democracy on the Relationship between Ports and Cities in Catalonia|
|Joaquim Nadal||Institut Català De Recerca En Patrimoni Cultural, Spain|
|The role of local culture in the transformation of the port-city|
|Guenter Warsewa||University of Bremen, Germany|
|Rebranding port cities: 'The case of Liverpool, Marseille and Rotterdam as European Capitals of Culture”|
|Paul Thomas Van de Laar; Reinhilde Sennema||Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands|
|Narrations of regeneration and degradation at once!|
|Felicitas Hillmann||IRS, Germany|
|The spatial dimension of path dependency A different framework to understand port-city development Naples case study: conflict area or negotiation space?|
|Paolo De Martino||Architect, the Netherlands|
|Port Centers, the spearheads of Seaport Culture disclosure|
|José Manuel Pagés Sánchez||Hafencity University, Germany|
|Barcelona's port: an imaginary seaport factory in a time of social, political and economic changes|
|Nadia Fava||Universitat de Girona, Spain|
In the rapidly changing environment of digital mapping new tools and techniques are emerging to build research capacity and facilitate analysis. These new tools are rarely adapted to historical questions even though the historiography of towns and cities is heavily focused on issues associated with space and hierarchies of spatial relationships. The capability of historical GIS to have a transformative effect on key issues in urban history warrants further examination.
The proposed session seeks to understand how new ways of analysing spatial relationships can contribute to the reinterpretation of city spaces and socio-economic relationships.
The organisers particularly welcome papers that:
(i) present case studies of historical mapping relating to the internal arrangements – social, economic, environmental, political, and cultural – that facilitate a reinterpretation of the dynamics of spatial relationships in neighbourhoods, towns or cities;
(ii) consider how to deal with shifting internal city boundaries and city expansion;
(iii) engage with technical developments – for example, with the automated extraction of data from historical sources such as nominal lists, directories, and from maps; or 3D historical representations;
(iv) discuss ‘which tools for which purpose’ works best;
(v) address licensing and copyright issues, or the relative merits of, say, OpenStreetMap or other mapping frameworks;
(vi) explore how urban historians in different countries are adapting to technical challenges, and whether longer term partnerships to develop international collaboration and funding initiatives would assist that adaptation;
(vii) examine how best practice can be distilled, both for research and teaching purposes; and how interactions between computer scientists and historians might be improved.
|Reinterpreting Space and Spatial Relationships|
|Richard Rodger; Susanne Rau||University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; University of Erfurt, Germany|
|Urban and social spaces in silk weaving, Lyons 18th-19th centuries|
|Bernard Gauthiez||Université Lyon 3 Jean Moulin, France|
|An Early Modern urban-rural continuum? A GIS-based comparison of urban and rural spatial structures in mid-18th century North Germany|
|Olaf März||Privat, Germany|
|Mapping Personal Relationships in the Late Medieval and Early Modern City of London|
|Justin Robert Colson||University of Essex, United Kingdom|
|Historic cadastres as a tool for analysing spatial relationships: Rome in the 19th century|
|Keti Lelo; Giuseppe Stemperini; Carlo Maria Travaglini||CROMA, Roma Tre University, Italy|
|Can You Afford to Live Far Enough from Nuisance, Crowding and Disease, and Commute to Work? Accounting for Residential Segregation by the Built Environment in 19th Century New York City|
|Gergely Baics||Barnard College - Columbia University, United States of America|
|From the city scale to the building scale: Virtual reconstruction of monastic Lisbon|
|Ana Cristina Chalaça Gil||Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal|
|Mapping spatial cultures: the contribution of space syntax to research in social and economic urban history|
|Sam Griffiths||UCL, United Kingdom|
|Chances and Challenges: The European Historic Towns Atlas in the digital media revolution|
|Daniel Stracke||Institut fuer vergleichende Staedtegeschichte, Germany|
|Mapping Race in the American South|
|Ella Howard||Armstrong State University, United States of America|
|Mapping social practices of space : the example of Paris in the Middle Ages|
|Hélène Noizet||University Paris-1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France|
The street is not a new concept. It appeared as soon as the cities themselves. In the 19th and 20th century, the street has been challenged by several other visions of the public urban space. The Hausmannian city scorned the tortuous medieval street and opened wide perspectives, bringing air and light. The planning movement had little time for the street. By the late 20th century, the street faced challenges from the tower block, the shopping mall and the industrial estate. The street gained new features such as pedestrian precincts.
What were the major influences on the street? What processes of governance, of economy, society and culture influenced the process of street drawing or alteration? The conflict of regulation with land ownership patterns and the market? How far did the technology of pipes and wires, of gas and electricity, change the nature, shape and meaning of the street?
The street is not only a shape. It has a wide variety of uses and cultural meanings and we invite contributors to explore them. In medieval and early modern times the street was a place devoted to circulation but also to display and trade, play, conversation and other form of sociability. This session asks if the qualities and uses associated with the street have changed with the spread of large scale urbanization in Europe, and the changes in the form of the street itself. It also questions the different meanings the term may have in European languages: la rue, die Straße, la via, la calle, gatan, de straat and other European ‘streets’ have Streets have gained a class, a gender or a race status. Visiting a shopping street is fine but not visiting a ‘street walker’. The meaning of a street changes with the time of day, day of the week and season of the year. The streets signify places of community and conversation and places of danger and movement. Comments mix nostalgia and memory with hostility. The street was a symbol of authority and the barricade a street a challenge to the state. All aspects material and cultural may be explore in the session. Propositions in French welcome.
|The “Passage” between East and West|
|Heleni Porfyriou||National Research Council - CNR, Italy|
|Retailing and the Street in Three English Cities 1850-1914|
|Ian Mitchell||University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom|
|Fire services and the street, c.1890-1930: speed, danger and control|
|Shane Ewen||Leeds Beckett University, United Kingdom|
|Analysing Vali-Asr Street Changing Trend in Meaning from the Users' Perspective, from 1925 until Now|
|Anahita Tabaeian; Samaneh Jalilisadrabad||The University of Science & Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran|
|Sollicitations du regard et aménagement des rues, Les écritures exposées à Paris, des années 1720 aux années 1820|
|Laurent Cuvelier||Sciences-po Paris, France|
|Street as Public Space: the Demise and Resurrection of the Imperial Avenue in Hangzhou|
|Shuishan Yu||Northeastern University, United States of America|
|Who Owns a Street and What Constitutes a “Street”? Confrontation in Berlin at the End of the Nineteenth Century|
|Douglas Mark Klahr||University of Texas at Arlington, United States of America|
|Streets and the ethnicity: ‘Polish’, ‘German’, ‘Ukrainian’ and ‘Jewish’ streets in Central Europe: the case of the Polish territories 1848-1914|
|Aleksander Lupienko||Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland|
The main objective of this session is to reveal the versatile experiences, emotions and perceptions of ordinary citizens in transforming urban societies during the nineteenth and twentieth century. The second half of the nineteenth century is bookmarked as a period of accelerated urbanization in the Western world. Excessive population growth, densification of the urban fabric, increased migration, traffic intensification and municipalities eager for modernity caused major transformations in urban space. The heightened responses to the multitude of large-scale, often radical urban redevelopment, transforming medieval urban cores into ‘modern’ city centres with broad boulevards, city parks and bustling shopping streets, have been studied at length. However, everyday experiences and emotions characterizing the interaction between urban dwellers and their unsettled urban environments have been largely neglected.
In this session, we would like to discuss how citizens experienced the changing urban environments. Two central questions will structure this session: 1. What kinds of emotions structured the daily interaction between urban dwellers and their rapidly changing environment? and 2. how did urban transformations influence the uses and perceptions of urban space? Considering the long-lasting claim that these processes of urbanization ruptured traditional ways of living, it is surprising that there is hardly any research on the entanglement between urban transformations and the emotions, uses and perceptions of citizens. While scholars often assumed that changes in the urban environment conjured up highly emotional responses like excitement, abhorrence, fear or alienation, ‘urban’ emotions have never been properly historicized in their entirety. Moreover, earlier research has only touched upon the changing uses and perceptions of urban space by ordinary citizens; such as the significance of alternative urban spaces functioning as safe-havens for the urban population in times of urban crises or landslide transformations in the urban environment.
We warmly welcome contributions that discuss the following topics:
– What types of emotions did the interaction with changing urban environments evoke?
– How did different groups of people experience the transforming urban environment in different ways, and what constituted those groups?
– How did citizens react to official government policy on urban spaces?
– Did tensions occur between the daily use and perceptions of urban space and the official approximation?
– How did city dwellers use and experience both official and alternative urban spaces in times of urban transformations?
– Did the experience of citizens, their emotions and their use of urban space impact municipal policy?
|In the eyes of a stranger: Emotional geographies and transforming city spaces in Odense 1840-1915|
|Camilla Schjerning||Odense City Museum, Denmark|
|“The rising of Pest is marvellous” Reflections on the transformation of Budapest in the 19th century|
|Emese Gyimesi||Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary|
|Making Sense of Ruins: Urban Reconstruction And Political Emotions in Belgrade 1941-2000|
|Gruia Badescu||University of Oxford, United Kingdom|
|Broadcasting Urban Emotions: Public Radio and Emotional Community in post-war Brussels|
|Nicolas Kenny||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|Emotional Rhetoric and the Governance of Urban Environmental Change in Mid-19th Century Montreal and Liverpool|
|Dan Horner||Ryerson University, Canada|
|Affective Appeals: Waste Management and Urban Reform in Late 19th Century New York|
|Björn Blaß||Max Planck Institute for Human Development / Freie Universität Berlin, Germany|
|Fear and Loathing in Gilded Age Chicago: Jack the Clipper and the Production of Urban Space|
|Sean Cosgrove||Cornell University, United States of America|
|Space, Experience and Expectation in the Victorian City: Everyday Perceptions of Public Parks in Leeds, c.1850-1914|
|David Churchill; Anna Barker; Adam Crawford||University of Leeds, United Kingdom; University of Bradford, United Kingdom|
|Everyday Experiences in Urban Transformation: Beijing’s Masses and Their Lived Space, 1911-1937|
|Xusheng Huang||ETH Zurich, Switzerland|
Cities are far from neutral spaces. The urban landscape reflects tensions and reveals conflicting interests. Nineteenth- and twentieth-century political organisations, cultural associations, learned societies and religious communities consciously produced and reused urban spaces to express and expand their local prominence and influence. Moreover, through (im)material traces, such as impressive buildings, public sculptures, street names, commemorative plaques, parades, public ceremonies etc., these local agencies invested the urban landscape with selected narratives, histories, memories and symbols.
At the same time, the meaning of (im)material memory traces is often the subject of controversy, conflict, contest and negotiation. Within the city, multiple voices challenge the identities represented by these traces. Opposing groups, minorities or regular citizens reappropriate them and subsequently invest these sites with new meanings and new ceremonies. As memories shift through time, these traces will also have new meanings for future generations.
Likewise, (im)material traces are subject to the evolving urban landscape. Nineteenth- and twentieth-century cities underwent profound urban transformations, which had considerable impacts on, for instance, their specific spatial context, visibility or accessibility. These urban changes sometimes even result in their replacements or demolitions.
Following the spatial turn of the 1970s and 1980s in human sciences, urban historians consider the urban space as a determining factor in socio-economic, cultural and political processes, while many others rarely consider the spatial embedding of (im)material memory traces. The power of (im)material memory traces is nonetheless very much related to their specific and well-considered location within the urban landscape.
Therefore, we invite submissions that will consider the role of (im)material memory traces, how they transform the urban landscape into a battleground and how their relation with the evolving urban landscape and populations changes over time. All papers relevant to the subject of (im)material memory traces are welcomed, but we especially encourage applications that relate these traces, the urban landscape, memory and space to the following key themes:
– the Sense of Place
– the Politics of Space
– Place, Memory and Identity
– Place, Memory and Affect
– Contingent and contested Meanings
– Absent, Silenced and suppressed Memories
|Brick ideologies. The appreciation of Dutch urban space, 19th-21st Century|
|Petra Brouwer||University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Neglecting the Nation. Popular interactions with the monumental landscape of late 19th century Amsterdam|
|Anne Frederique Petterson||Leiden University, the Netherlands|
|From 'lieu de mémoire' to 'pôles de mémoire': remembering the urban hero Everard T'Serclaes in and around Brussels|
|Bram Vannieuwenhuyze||1: Ghent University, Belgium; 2: KU Leuven, Belgium|
|Citrus and Peach Urban Landscapes|
|Annette Condello||Curtin University, Australia|
|Seville as the birthplace of the Hispanic Race: constructing the image of the city through the Ibero-American Exposition|
|Maria Milena Malkowska||University of Warsaw, Poland|
|An Italian 'sonderweg' in modern Turkey: framing the Società Operaia building’s history in post-World War II Beyoğlu|
|Enno Maessen||University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Cities of memory: the comparison between Warsaw’s and Budapest’s tomb of the unknown soldier|
|Maria Czaputowicz; Zofia Antkiewicz; Antoni Zakrzewski||University of Warsaw, Poland|
|Change and Resistance in the Urban Landscape: Northern Irish Political Murals since the Good Friday Agreement|
|Mark Christopher Callaghan||Birkbeck College, University of London, United Kingdom|
Literary and cultural representations of cities are much more than the secondary or tertiary responses they are sometimes made to be in urban historiography. Cities in literature (and other media) are not to be understood only in terms of traditions cut off from the actual sites and experiences they appear to describe – although questions of genre, period and literary ethos will always have to be acknowledged. This session wants to examine the materiality of literary representations of the city. To what extent do they reflect on, and (re-) produce the material, as well as the social realities in actual cities in a European and global context? Possible examples of case studies addressing these questions range from reappraisals of slum writing in nineteenth- and twentieth-century cities to the interaction between utopian city narratives in literature and urban planning, and the literary roots of current rhetoric of public housing, urban redevelopment, and place making.
In addition to the idea of city as performance, notions such as depth, individuality and materiality could be proposed as new ways of understanding the role of literary texts in the writing of urban histories. Within an environment characterized by mobility and ever-shifting, constructed and imagined class relations, literary texts while they have their own economic context and conditions of possibility based on the publishing industry, offer a specific sort of evidence about urban history that cannot be obtained elsewhere. In an important sense, everyone’s individual views are prejudiced and positioned and constructed within traditions. Literary texts are able, perhaps uniquely, to help us understand the lineaments of this reality. At the same time they reveal, in a way that resists reduction, the depth of individual encounters with urban sites as they exist in time.
This session aims at a re-examination of ‘cultural’ and ‘spatial’ turns in literary and social studies, and to explore how innovative sources and methods from literary studies may provide important new insights in urban history studies. Key questions addressed in this session are: How should urban historians evaluate written texts that are commonly labelled literary? How can such texts best be used and interpreted in their research? How do they interact (actively and retroactively) with urban materialities, and how do literary texts relate to other genres of urban writing?
|Playful City Tales: Searching for a ‘literary city’ through archaeology|
|Elke Rogersdotter||Uppsala University, Sweden|
|Memorialising Materiality: Narrative as Archive in Neo-Liberal Delhi|
|Anubhav Pradhan||Jamia Millia Islamia, India|
|The ‘Unconfessed’ architectures of Cape Town: the potential of literary texts to explore archival silences of marginal populations|
|Huda Tayob||UCL, Bartlett School of Architecture, United Kingdom|
|Double-Coding in Peter Ackroyd's Hawksmoor|
|Aleksejs Taube||University of Latvia, Latvia|
|Other Translations: Mapping 19th Century Istanbul through Ahmet Mithat Efendi’s Novels|
|Ela Cil; Ayse Nur Senel Fidangenc||Izmir Institute of Technology (IYTE), Turkey; Pamukkale University,Turkey|
|Between the Street and the Drawing Room: Slumming in Eliot’s Early Poetry|
|Bo Johan Otto Pettersson||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|The literary adventure of the skyscraper in France: from the cultural history to the history of architecture (1900-1930)|
|Julie Gimbal||Paris IV La Sorbonne, France|
|Canberra: Urban modernity meets the bush in M. Barnard Eldershaw’s 'Plaque With Laurel'|
|Jayne Patricia Regan||Australian National Univeristy, Australia|
|Writing Regeneration: Urban Redevelopment and the Material Production of Local Literature|
|Roseannah Murphy||University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom|
|Recycling fictions in the city: Don DeLillo and the materiality of waste|
|Markku Salmela||University of Tampere, Finland|
|Poetry of Homelessness – The Life of a Newsman-poet in Budapest at the Beginning of the 20th Century|
|Angelika Bálint||Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Humanities, Hungary|
|Playing with new space in London: Children’s comics of the 1930s|
|Lucie Glasheen||Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom|
|‘On the Square’: Ada Chesterton and the Danger of the Depression-Era Metropolis|
|Flore Janssen||Birkbeck, University of London, United Kingdom|
Many methods have been used to put the city on display, by displaying on a fixed stand (i.e. walls, paper, screen, exhibition) as well as on a mobile stand (e.g. web, app). The objective has always been to produce a reaction and to provoke participation from the people in order to increase our understanding of cities. Today we face challenges and opportunities in form of open data, digital tools and active citizenship. But the display is always also an interpretation in its’ own right. How do digital environments and the visual approach affect the interpretations?
The session focuses not only on the experiences and reflexions on displaying as a form to share knowledge, but also on display as a method to involve people and to improve interpretations and understanding. We welcome comparative perspectives in order to achieve a fruitful exchange underlining the relevance of cities in the European history.
What is the relationship between exhibiting urban stories and active citizenship? How can we produce displays that keep and communicate the essence of cities (activities, environment, palaces, housing, public spaces, everyday life)? Could a display act as a laboratory of urban history? What kind of displays would be suitable for underlining urban needs or burning issues? What happens to the expert role of an urban historian? How can the inhabitants themselves become actors when urban spaces are represented and retold? What are the possibilities of imagery and virtual displays in interpretation of history and in bringing the stories outside museums and beyond books?
|Urban Histories on Display: Comparing the Virtual and Sensory Representation Designs of the Archeological Sites in Rome and Xi’an|
|Meng-chi Hsueh||Tunghai University, Taiwan, Republic of China|
|The Venetian Ghetto. Semantic modelling for an integrated analysis|
|Alessandra Ferrighi; Paolo Borin||Università Iuav di Venezia, Italy; Università Iuav di Venezia, Italy|
|The museum of the city of Rome: reflections, experiences, ideas of innovation|
|Carlo Maria Travaglini; Keti Lelo; Giuseppe Stemperini||Roma Tre University, Italy; Roma Tre University, Italy; Roma Tre University, Italy|
|Trying to avoid Local History as a "one night stand" biased affair: the Fake Museum experiment|
|Rui Macário Ribeiro||CITAR/Portuguese Catholic University - Porto, Portugal|
|About the people, with the people. New permanent exhibition in Helsinki City Museum|
|Jari Harju||Helsinki City Museum, Finland|
|Mapping the City with Stories: Location-specific Storytelling and The Tale of Bloomsbury|
|Liliana Ortega Garza; Elizabeth Dearnley||University College London, United Kingdom|
|‘Moving Forward’, rediscovering the ‘Ironopolis’: Reinterpreting and disseminating Middlesbrough’s history through urban regeneration|
|Tosh Warwick||Leeds Beckett University, United Kingdom|
|Exploring Urban History via Open-Air Museums|
|Karen Jamison Wizevich||Johns Hopkins University, United States of America|
This session will study towns that have a divided history between two – or even more – nations. Due to peace treaties, several towns have changed from one state to another, while others even have been divided into separate parts between states. Especially in cases when these changes have occurred after World War II, memories connected to the lost towns or town parts have contributed to an unresolved trauma for many states.
The first main question in this session asks what people think about these ‘lost towns’ today? How do they perceive the changes from the familiar old town space in the present-day foreign country? Moreover, it is interesting to ask how the remnants of the former dominant culture, including buildings and squares, are perceived by the present-day citizens and inhabitants of the town. The second main issue in this session concerns the relationship of the present-day authorities of the town to its former history – how is it interpreted? Is it used for commercial purposes in tourism, for example, or is it ignored or even reinterpreted from the perspective of its current geopolitical reality in another state?
The key concepts and themes of the session are ‘places of memory’, ‘history view’, ‘town branding’ and ‘uses of the past’ connected to the towns that have this kind of two-fold identity and mentality. There are many towns in Europe sharing a two-fold past and situation as a ‘place of memories’ (les lieux de mémoire). To keep this topic coherent, this session is limited to towns in states around the Baltic Sea. By concentrating on Northern Europe, we hope to maintain a degree of comparability.
|Representing the places of Vyborg: meanings and memories of lost places|
|Jussi-Pekka Semi||University of Eastern Finland, Finland|
|Abstract Karhu & Ryabova: City as a place of memories and meanings: the mental maps of town Vyborg|
|Jani Karhu; Ludmila Ryabova||University of Eastern Finland, Finland; St. Petersburg State University, Russian Federation|
|"Vyborg is ours": remembering a 'lost town' in Finland|
|Chloe Wells||University of Eastern Finland, Finland|
|Interfaith marriages in Vyborg in 19th - early 20th century by parish registers|
|Maria Markova||St. Petersburg State University, Russian Federation|
|Planning and development of Vyborg's townscape during Soviet time (in case of architectures point of view)|
|Eugeny Petrov; Taisia Krinitsyna||St. Petersburg State University, Russian Federation|
|"Lost towns" in the Baltic Sea region also seen from the point of view of history of science|
|Harald Gropp||Universitaet Heidelberg, Germany|
|A regional centre caught in a national crossfire: Flensburg/Flensborg between German and Danish|
|Steen Bo Frandsen||University of Southern Denmark, Denmark|
|Discussion on the “Question of Vilnius” in the Early Years of the 20th Century|
|Audronė Janužytė||Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania|
|From Stettin / Szczecin to Stecin / Szczettin: Competing memories in Polish and German discourses since the 1980s|
|Joerg Hackmann||University of Szczecin, Poland|
Culture as an agent and urban growth factor has now been on the research agenda for some time. The Swedish economist Åke E Andersson for example emphasised in the late 1980s the role of culture and creativity in the forthcoming knowledge society. More recently Richard Florida and others have called attention to culture services and creative industries as dynamic forces for urban development. Generally speaking, there has been a growing awareness of culture as one of the most forceful branches in the post-industrial age. Culture and creativity industries are however no clear-cut concepts. Definitions vary to a great extent as well as quantitative estimates of the cultural and creative sectors.
Parallel to this development there has been a growing interest for the study of cultural policies. Up to now focus has mainly been on the national level, for example governmental strategies for developing culture and supporting artisans and creative workers. Much less notice has been given to the local level and how local authorities have dealt with cultural issues. Our research indicates so far that cultural questions became more frequent on the local political agenda during the welfare period, i.e. from the 1920s and on. Local authorities could for example subsidise libraries, museums, theatres, music events, local history research, film projects, decoration of public buildings and public art in general. Anyhow, culture was still to a great extent dependent on philanthropy and private donations. The municipal support varied considerably between cities. Capital cities had normally easy access to the national cultural institutions; therefore cultural life in minor cities could be more dependent on municipal support.
We invite everyone with an interest to study the cultural dimension of urban life to submit a paper proposal. Some basic themes could be:
– Why did local authorities start to subsidise culture;
– What kind of cultural events got support and to what extent;
– Local variations in municipal support to culture;
– The transformation from cultural subsidises to culture as a driving force for urban growth;
– Definitions and measurement of cultural services and creative industries.
|Enriching Urban Life of the Public: Chinese Modern Parks, 1927-1937|
|Yuanyuan Liu||University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom|
|An Imagined Europe: Growing Cultural Landscapes of Eskisehir’s Riverfront|
|Kivanc Kilinc; Duygu Kacar||Yasar University, Turkey; Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey|
|Liverpool Resurgent: How Liverpool used their Arts Festival status in the 1951 Festival of Britain to improve its image|
|Caterina Amanda Benincasa-Sharman||University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom|
|Patterns of cinema locations and (sub)urbanisation: Antwerp (Belgium) and Rotterdam (Netherlands) in a comparative perspective|
|Thunni van Oort; Kathleen Lotze||University college Roosevelt, the Netherlands; Utrecht University, the Netherlands|
|Municipal and Regional Theatres (DI.PE.THE.) in Greece: an institution for cultural decentralization and cultural development in Greek regional cities|
|Eleni Doundoulaki||National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece|
|‘Useless expenditures, wasted for entertainment’? Municipal investments in culture and recreation in The Netherlands, 19-20th centuries|
|Jan Hein Furnee||Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands|
This session aims to continue with exchanges that have taken place in the previous EAUH Conferences which were considering the transnational circulation of planning models with focus on avant-garde movements and the study of town planning documents. The session will take forward this investigation and be increasingly in line with a transnational history approach with a focus on the dialogue between the different actors and the transfer and exchange of the knowledge of urban planning on both sides of the Atlantic from 1900 to 1950.
The first part of the twentieth century was marked by the construction and affirmation of urban planning as a discipline, both in Europe and the Americas. At that time, European and North American cities were faced with the need to control their growth and build new relationships between urban and rural contexts. During the same period, cities of Latin America were faced with an unprecedented growth and the urban framework was in the process of being structured in several countries.
In these multiple contexts emerges a new figure: the expert. He was often an architect, trained in Europe and/or in the Americas, a member of international associations and a well-known practitioner. This actor was involved in various professional networks, both national and international: he based his practice on defining and adopting urban planning tools, in particular the plan. The expert was called by local governments, as Joseph Stübben in Luxembourg or Donat-Alfred Agache in Rio de Janeiro, or he participated in international competitions, such as Henri Prost in Antwerp or Werner Hegemann in Buenos Aires.
During the period between 1900 and 1950 these opportunities increased in many contexts. Theoretical knowledge of urban planning was gradually built, especially during the national and international conferences’ debates. The circulation of ideas was ensured not only by the journals that emerged between 1910 and 1930, but also by an increasingly rich literature devoted to urban planning. The experts were actively involved in the circulation of knowledge and expertise in urban planning, that they enriched with personal experiences and exchanges with colleagues, often from foreign countries.
The objective of the session will be to explore the emergence of transnational expertise in urban planning, focusing on papers that deal with the following topics:
– Professional trajectories (architects, engineers) between and within Europe and the Americas;
– International expertise in urban planning: competitions and public procurements;
– Means of circulation: journals, conferences, books and translations.
|Garden city, satellite cities, neighborhood unit cells. The “place” of green in planning São Paulo city – Luiz de Anhaia Mello’s standpoint|
|Maria Stella Martins Bresciani||Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil|
|Ideas for incorporation of greenery in Santiago. Two chapters of a transnational history|
|Magdalena Undurraga||Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile|
|Barry Parker, Raymond Unwin and Victor Freire: transnational exchanges and the improvement of urban planning in São Paulo, Brazil|
|José Geraldo Simões Junior||Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Brazil|
|Debates and transnational issues:The concepts of Urban Parks and open spaces in reading the Avenues Plan (São Paulo-1930)|
|Marisa Varanda Teixeira Carpintéro||Campinas State University, Brazil|
|The professional career of Joseph-Antoine Bouvard between Europe and South America|
|Roseli Maria Martins D'Elboux||Mackenzie Prebyterian University, Brazil|
|L'oeuvre de Henri Prost et la captation des modèles et dispositifs de l'urbanisme, 1910-1959|
|Laurent Hodebert||1: Laboratoire INAMA, ENSA Marseille, France; 2: Laboratoire MHAevt, ENSA Grenoble, France|
|More than an expert. The role of Karl Brunner in Bogota, 1933-1948|
|Diego Arango López||EHESS, France|
|Awakening Canada to Urban Planning: Henry Vivian and His Cross-National Tour of 1910|
|Catherine Mary Ulmer||McGill University, Canada|
There are multiple examples of late 20th century cities that were constructed from scratch to realize certain political, economic and/or social goals and became models of urban development. Cancún, for example, became a model for seashore leisure cities for the Americas. Dubai is now a coveted brand for many regions with growing economies that aspire to build a new capital city. The social realities in these cities, however, often reveal inner conflicts that are hidden behind their ideal imagery.
The proposed session intends to establish a structure of analysis for these pre-planned cities. The session is organized around four main questions:
1. Is there a typology of pre-planned model cities? Is it possible to distinguish leisure, commercial, administrative, industrial, technological, etc. cities that became models for similar urban development? Did these cities remain mono-functional or did they evolve into multi-functional places over time? If so, how did this evolution take place and what were the social and economic consequences?
2. How were social realities and social divisions in these cities related to the original utopian desires of their masterminds? How did the often unwanted, but necessary labourers in their construction and service industries find their place and identity in these cities?
3. Which cities became models of urban development? How did this imitating process take place within the same country and in different countries? What were the transnational influences that formed the imaginary for pre-planned cities? What tensions existed between these international influences and local realities?
4. In the case of non-European cities, how was the intended urban setting influenced by existing European examples? How was local identity and the particularity of place meant to be expressed? How did these local urban features shift the meaning and practice of European models?
The session organizers welcome paper proposals that deal with individual examples or with comparative case studies, and that follow all or some of the proposed questions for analysis.
|Departure from the plan: Social inequalities in socialist pre-planned cities|
|Christoph Bernhardt||Leibniz-Institute IRS, Germany|
|Socialist pre-planned cities in postwar Poland. Between utopia and reality|
|Edyta Krężołek||The Institute of National Remembrance, Poland|
|The Social History of the New Socialist Towns in the 1970s and 1980s in East Central Europe|
|Ana Kladnik||Center for Contemporary History (ZZF), Potsdam, Germany|
|Cancun, a model for Integrally Planned Centers in neoliberal Mexico?|
|Luis Alberto Velasco Ruiz||École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL), France|
|Visible Power: Urban Planning, Architecture, and National Identity in a post-Soviet Capital City, 1994-2014 (Based on the case of Astana)|
|Nari Shelekpayev||Université de Montréal, Canada|
|Networks of Im-mobility: A transportation narrative of urban fragmentation and social inequality in the city of Dubai|
|Shahed Dayoub||Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE)|
|Dubai, the global city machine|
|Marcio Machado||University of Southern California, United States of America|
The horrendous urban destruction during World War II fostered a passionate discourse on urban reconstruction in nearly every European country. Myriad modes of urbanist thought, drawing from notions of scientific modernisation and vernacular traditionalism, created imageries of a New Jerusalem that would arise from the debris of warfare. These discourses incorporated ideas as diverse as the neighbourhood unit, urban renewal, social regeneration and physical conservation, which conceptualised both the spatial and the social in the post-war urban context.
Despite the emergence of a number of international institutions and networks devoted to post-war urban reconstruction, the historiography mostly advances a national, local or comparative perspective. The circulations of knowledge between centres of reconstruction and the interplay between international ideas and its local adaptions have only attracted minor interest.
This panel invites papers that probe into the discourses and practices that reveal the trans-local and transnational orientations in the process of urban reconstruction in Europe between the 1940s and 1960s. Focusing on particular institutions, agents, discourses and practices, our panel will shed new light on the rebuilding of urban Europe after 1945. In a more general way, the panel is concerned with the question how the scales and geographies of the international, the national and the local shaped and informed European urban reconstruction. In what way did national ambitions determine the international circulation of ideas and how, in turn, was international knowledge converted to national and local urban reform agendas? Our panel also attempts to assess to what extent transnational circulations were determined by Cold War rivalries. Were there any holes in the Iron Curtain? Finally, we try to integrate a global perspective on urban reconstruction in Europe. How did colonial or post-colonial experiences shape the European discourse on urban reconstruction?
These questions might be forwarded in at least three ways:
First, we welcome papers addressing the variety of post-war institutions seeking to govern reconstruction, preservation and social regeneration on the local, national and international levels.
Second, we would like to bring together scholars working on individual planners, politicians and administrators that navigated between the conflicting priorities of the local, the national and the international.
Third, we look for contributions on the practices of conferences, research projects and exhibitions that were staged to convince domestic policy leaders, compare international data, and promote seemingly outstanding planning ideas.
|Cartographies of Catastrophe: Mapping World War Two Destruction in Poland and Germany|
|Jerzy Marek Elzanowski||Carleton University, Canada|
|International inspirations and influences in Czechoslovak post-war architecture and urbanism (1948-1968)|
|Slavomira Ferencuhova||Masaryk University Faculty of Social Studies, Czech Republic|
|East and West competing for a socialist neighbourhood: The Fennpfuhl project in East Berlin and spatial discourses among German urban planners during the Thaw Period of the Cold War|
|Andreas Butter||IRS Erkner, Germany|
|Post-Second World War Urban Reconstruction in Croatia: Between National Identity and International Methods|
|Iva Raič Stojanović; Marko Špikić||Institute of Art History, Croatia; University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Croatia|
|International Architecture Discourses and their influence on the post-45 architectural discourse in Styria/Graz (Austria)|
|Monika Stromberger||University of Graz, Austria|
|Post-War Urban Reconstruction of Helsinki´s Kallio district|
|Mika Mäkelä||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|A Long Reconstruction. Ideologies, models and actors in Unrra casas’ committees (Italy, 1947-1963; 1963-1973)|
|Patrizia Bonifazio; Nicole De Togni||Politecnico of Milan, Italy|
|Architectural influences across national and historical borders : example of the post-war Reconstruction after 1945 in Alsace|
|Gauthier Bolle||École nationale supérieure d'architecture et de paysage de Bordeaux, France|
|Producing space: Post-war redevelopment as big business|
|Tim Verlaan||University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Euro-impact on the Spatial and Architectural De/Reconstruction of the Cities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) in the Post-WWII era|
|Umut Koldas; Huriye Gurdalli||Near East University, Faculty of International Relations, North Cyprus; Near East University, Faculty of Architecture, North Cyprus|
M33. At Home in the “Concrete Jungle”: Lived Experience and Reputation in Twentieth-century Mass Housing
In studies of twentieth-century mass housing estates and “new towns,” many scholars have examined the production end: the planning, design, and construction of new housing projects. Less attention has been given to the consumption side: the lived experience in new social and spatial housing environments, and ways in which these areas were interpreted and established (often negative) reputations. Indeed, a tension between the disparate accounts of the consumption side—the residents’ accounts of community-formation on the one hand, and outsiders’ condemnations of “concrete jungles” and “soulless suburbs” on the other—has been characteristic. In many ways, this tension has shaped life within and the policies concerning housing estates until today.
The purpose of this session is to initiate a comparative debate on the experiential and interpretative realm of mass housing in the twentieth century. We invite papers from any disciplinary background to consider this tension between experience and reputation. Questions that papers might consider include:
• Why did architects’ and politicians’ intentions for new mass housing not translate into broad public acceptance or enthusiasm?
• Which were the crucial historical junctures for the divergence of experience and reputation?
• What actors were involved in establishing a local “sense of place” in new housing developments, or in building negative reputations?
• How did insider- and outsider-produced narratives compare in terms of themes, reasoning and rhetoric?
• What consequences arose from tensions between lived experience and reputation?
While most of the questions appear to be relevant for all “Western” societies, hinting at major commonalities, answers will differ considerably. A great variation in terms of the nature of the state (e.g. liberal, social-democratic); the size, accessibility, and potential regulation of the private housing market; and the class context in which mechanisms of social sorting related to housing occurred, existed throughout Western Europe and North America. By reflecting on commonalities and differences we expect to clarify key factors and turning points in the contentious history of mass housing estates.
|A „Concrete Ghetto“ or a „Prime Example with Blemishes“? On Reputation of the Housing Estate Emmertsgrund in Germany|
|Monika Motylinska||Technical University Berlin, Germany|
|Interpretating 'welfare' in mass housing in Aarhus in the 1950's and onward|
|Mikkel Høghøj||Aarhus University, Institute for Culture and Society, Denmark|
|Conceptualizing the British Inner City, 1967-1979: The L8 Factor|
|Peter Shapely||Bangor University, United Kingdom|
|Emotional topographies in the making: Social Scientists in search of the lonely crowd in French and West German large-scale housing estates in the 1960s|
|Christiane Reinecke||University of Leipzig, Germany|
|From “Little Russia” to “Planet of the Apes”: Nicknaming Twentieth-century Mass Housing in Belgium|
|Evert Vandeweghe||Flanders Heritage Agency, Belgium|
|A Place for Community on the Estate: spatial contests over community centres on mid-twentieth century British housing estates|
|James Alexander Greenhalgh||University of Lincoln, United Kingdom|
|The “Villaggio del Pilastro” between grassroots participation and marginalization: urban identities and representations in a mass-housing of postwar Bologna (1960-1991)|
|Giovanni Cristina||EHESS/Centre de Recherches Historiques, France|
Few planning projects have shaped present-day landscapes across Europe and the United States more than modernist mass housing. Long after their heyday in the mid-twentieth century, when these high-rise dwellings were thought of as optimistic solutions to the postwar housing crisis, these buildings and the infrastructures surrounding them continue to mark physical environments. Moreover, modernist mass housing programs have also impacted environmental thought or discourse — broadly defined to include issues such as medicine, public health, religion, civic participation, and psychology as well as the science of ecology. The aim of this panel is to encourage new work on this subject, which has been largely ignored in housing studies, and to create a space for the discovery of novel transatlantic connections between mass housing and environmental thought. How were the landscapes surrounding these complexes envisioned by their designers, used by inhabitants, and interpreted by the wider public? In what ways did environmental thought impact plans for mass housing, and vice versa?
In considering these questions, a transatlantic, comparative perspective is essential. As historian Daniel Rogers and others have demonstrated, transatlantic connections shaped housing policy throughout the twentieth century. More recently, scholars such as Rosemary Wakeman have shown parallels between housing developments between capitalist and socialist countries within Europe in the postwar era. Building upon these works, this panel invites papers that address the intersection of mass housing and environmental thought in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, the United States, or papers that employ a comparative perspective. More broadly, the panel aims to foster engagement between environmental history, history of science, and urban planning history and theory.
Potential themes might include the role of ecology in the design and planning of mass housing in communist and/or capitalist societies; ideas of landscape and the natural in mass housing programs; the intersection of housing and environmental policy; the role of the “social” in environmental planning; and the reactions of inhabitants to what was built.
|Ecology and intimacy on the urban periphery: the social housing of Renée Gailhoustet|
|Lara Belkind||Harvard University, United Kingdom|
|Environment Matters: New Approaches to Socialist Urban Design (1960s-1980s)|
|Daria Bocharnikova||Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium|
|“Not Just Barberry:” The Green Spaces of the Swedish “Concrete Suburbs,” 1960-1980|
|Jennifer Shannon Mack||Uppsala University/KTH, Sweden|
|Spanish modernist mass housing fifty years later. Emergence and obsolescence|
|Javier Monclús; Carmen Medina||Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain|
|Nature and the “Third Way” in French Mass Housing: From Public Health to Private Space, 1945-1975|
|Nicole Rudolph||Adelphi University, New York, United States of America|
|Context is not Community: Twin Parks, the Bronx|
|Susanne M Schindler||ETH Zurich, Switzerland / Columbia University, United States of America|
|Modernisation & the Persian Garden: The Resilience of an Environmental Idea in Iran’s Mass Housing, the Example of Shushtar-e Nou|
|Seyed Mohamad Ali Sedighi||TU Delft, the Netherlands|
|Ecological Planning, Housing and the Human: Reassessing the Work of Artur Glikson|
|Shira Wilkof||University of California, Berkeley, United States of America|
Urban automobility was contested throughout the 20th century much more than is commonly known and the vision of the “car-oriented city” (“ville adapté à la voiture”, “autogerechte Stadt”) met with many restrictions and protests. The session will discuss the ambivalences in the rise of urban automobility and give special attention to the many opponents of and struggles against the radical transformation of the traditional city for the sake of the car. We are also interested in the strategies of the pro-car lobby and of policy-makers concerned with adapting cities to motor traffic. Papers are expected to not merely retrace planning histories or the major narrative of the rise of urban automobility, perspectives that have already been widely discussed. Rather, we wish to discuss approaches like the gendered aspects of mobility, path dependencies and persistence in processes of urban transformation, less known obstacles, public interventions and citizens’ movements against the car-oriented city in contemporary history.
Potential themes of papers are: Protests against cars in the early 20th century; urban environmental movements; control of automobility by town planning in post-war cities in East and Western Europe; campaigns in the context of the European year for the built heritage 1975; public debates on congestion; urban lobby groups for automobility; public legislation concerning speed limits, pedestrian zones, one way-streets, traffic taxes; pedestrians and cyclists initiatives; citizens groups against urban motorways.
Paper givers are invited to give attention to socio-cultural and socio-technical aspects as well as to problems of governance and ambivalences in planning.
|Campaigns for Urban Play Streets in Britain 1950-1970. Gender, Class and Automobility|
|Krista Cowman||University of Lincoln, United Kingdom|
|Los Angeles or London? Rival Visions of the Automobile City in Australia|
|Graeme John Davison||Monash University, Australia|
|“Fight against the notorious transport masterplan!” – Civil society opposition to the car-oriented city transformation in East and West Germany in the 1970s and 1980s|
|Harald Engler||Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS), Germany|
|Lobbying for Automobile Regulation in Early Twentieth-Century Finnish Towns|
|Mia Korpiola||University of Turku, Finland|
|What difference did cars make? City streets in 1900|
|Brian Ladd||University at Albany, United States of America|
|Contesting the automobile “raz-de-marée” in post-war French cities|
|Tristan Loubes; Stéphane Frioux||Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France; Université Lyon 2, France|
|Traffic-ing in History: the Evolution and Legacy of Glasgow Motorway Planning|
|Sarah Merritt Mass||University of Michigan, United States of America|
|Signal-Horns. The mobile soundscape of streets in urban settings in Interwar Germany and England|
|Heiner Stahl||University of Siegen, Germany|
This interdisciplinary panel explores how networks helped to establish, expand, and sustain markets for cultural products such as books and art, as well as theatre, music and cinema productions. Although the study of social ties among market participants is by no means new, it is becoming increasingly prominent due to historiographical and methodological developments. Recent studies on cultural markets and urban creativity, for instance, testify to the importance of local and interlocal networks for innovation and market development (cf. Davids & De Munck 2014; De Marchi & Raux 2014). Moreover, analyses of historical networks have been reinforced by the spilling over of the method of ‘network analysis’ from the social sciences as well as the advent of computational techniques in historical research (e.g. Graham, Milligan & Weingart 2013)*. Despite this recent interest, there is still much ambiguity around the concept of networks. The term is often used as a catch-all denoting many different relationships in cultural markets and although most historians are by now familiar with digital network visualization and spatial mapping, their analytical potential and limitations deserve further examination. Papers are, therefore, invited to reflect on issues of methodology and digital techniques, e.g. means of collecting, analyzing, and presenting data pertaining to the relationship between networks and cultural market development. We welcome contributions on Europe and beyond, across different periods, and on miscellaneous cultural markets.
The following themes fit particularly well with the aims of the session:
– Different uses of networks by individuals and firms (promotion, information collection, subcontracting, reputation building, etc.);
– Comparisons of network structures across time, space, and cultural industries;
– Tracing cultural exchange and transmission across inter-local and cross-sectoral networks;
– Relationships between networks, affiliations and institutions in cultural markets;
– Processes of intermediation in cultural markets.
|Maarten Prak||Utrecht University, the Netherlands|
|A Century of Cinema Locations in Antwerp (Belgium) and Rotterdam (Netherlands): Mapping Movie Going and Urban Transformation|
|Thunnis van Oort; Kathleen Lotze||University college Roosevelt, Netherlands, The; Utrecht University, the Netherlands|
|Film Diffusion Networks in 1950s Italy|
|John Sedgwick; Daniela Treveri Gennari||University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom; Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom|
|Using big cultural data to understand diversity and reciprocity in the global flow of contemporary cinema|
|Bronwyn Coate; Deb Verhoeven; Stuart Palmer; Colin Arrowsmith||RMIT University, Australia; Deakin University|
|Nationalist Aspirations in Print: Book Publishing in the Baltic Provinces of Late Imperial Russia|
|Mark Moll||Indiana University, United States of America|
|Auction data as network data beyond business transactions|
|Lukas Fuchsgruber||Technische Universität Berlin, Forum Kunst und Markt, Germany|
|Exploring the market for paintings in the early modern Low Countries with ECARTICO|
|Harm Nijboer; Marten Jan Bok||University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Transcontinental Dealer Networks and the Formation of the American Museum Landscape (c. 1880-1920)|
|Christian Huemer & Matthew Lincoln||The Getty Research Institute, United States of America|
|The Origins of Creativity: The Case of the Arts in the US since 1850|
|Karol Jan Borowiecki||University of Southern Denmark, Denmark|
M37: Repenser les usages politiques de la rue. Europe-Amériques XIXe–XXIe siècles / Rethinking the Political Uses of the Streets: Europe-America 19th–21st Centuries
Les usages politiques de la rue ont fait l’objet de nombreuses études ; l’historiographie européenne a en particulier, s’agissant du XIXe siècle, mis l’accent sur les relations complexes entre le développement de nouvelles formes urbaines et l’émergence de nouvelles pratiques politiques. Les historiens se sont ainsi intéressés à la manifestation, la barricade, la procession ou le meeting, des manifestations chartistes anglaises aux barricades parisiennes, des processions catholiques aux marches fascistes italiennes, en privilégiant souvent le cadre national.
L’ambition de cette session est d’interroger, dans une optique d’histoire connectée, la façon dont ces pratiques classiques ont pu être réinterprétées dans le temps et dans l’espace, en prêtant attention aux modes de circulation de ces formes d’action collective entre différents continents, sur le long terme. L’analyse des modèles, mais aussi des vecteurs et des circuits humains qui ont contribué à la diffusion de certains usages spécifiques de la rue pourra être au centre de ce projet.
On pourra également s’interroger sur les connexions internationales qui placent certaines formes et moments de contestation locale dans le cadre d’évènements et de réseaux transnationaux (le moment 1848, l’affaire Sacco et Vanzetti, etc..). Certains évènements mémoire (révolutions parisiennes du XIXe siècle, mai 1968…) font-ils l’objet d’un re-jeu dans d’autres temps et d’autres espaces, en constituant une référence mythique, une source de consignes, de symboles et de représentations qui peuvent être invoqués ou instrumentalisées par les acteurs collectifs pour légitimer leur action, délégitimer celle de leurs adversaires, ou tout simplement produire des images compréhensibles par tous?
En confrontant les expériences européennes et américaines, sur le temps long, l’ambition est d’analyser comment ces divers usages politiques de la rue sont réinvestis dans le cadre national pour donner forme et légitimité à un système manifestant spécifique à chaque pays au XXe siècle, quelle légitimité est accordée aux usages politiques de la rue dans la conformation du champ politique local. Par quels biais, ce champ politique est-il progressivement délimité, et quel rôle est-il dévolu à la rue? Que nous révèlent ces divers usages et réappropriations sur la nature du politique dans ces pays?
Les communications pourront notamment s’interroger sur le rôle des législations nationales et leurs éventuelles circulations, sur la gestion du maintien de l’ordre, sur l’importance des réformes urbaines et de la place dévolue à la ville comme espace politique ou sur les discours normatifs des élites politiques sur le devoir-être des “bons” usages politiques de la rue.
Rethinking the political uses of the streets: Europe-America 19th-21st centuries
The way streets have been politically used have led to various studies : European historiography on the 19th century in particular stressed the complex relations between the development of new urban forms and the emergence of new political practices. Historians have looked into demonstrations, barricades, processions, meetings, when studying the English Chartists demonstrations, the Parisian barricades, the Catholic processions, the Italian fascist marches. They often focused on the national level.
The ambition of this session is to use connected histories and to question how those classical practices have been reinterpreted across time and space by paying attention to how those forms of collective action circulated between continents in the long term. The analysis of models and also of human vectors and circuits which contributed to the spread of some specific uses of the streets is at the centre of this project.
It will also be interesting to study the international connections which place some forms and moments of local protest in the larger framework of transnational events and networks (the revolutions of 1848, the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, etc.). Are some places of memory (such as the Parisian revolutions in the 19th century, the May 1968 events) replayed at other times and in different places while serving as a mythical reference, the origin of rules, symbols and representations which can be called upon or exploited by collective actors to give legitimacy to their action, undermine the legitimacy of their opponents, or simply to produce images that can be understood by all?
By comparing the European and American experiences in long-term history, the aim is to analyze how these diverse political uses of the streets have been reinvented at a national level in order to give shape and legitimacy to a system of demonstrations that would belong specifically to each country in the twentieth century. Which legitimacy is given to the political uses of the streets so that they conform to the field of local politics? What are the evolving boundaries given to this political field and what is the role given to the streets? What do its varied uses and rearranging reveal about the nature of politics in these countries?
The conference papers can look at the role of national legislations and their possible circulations, the management of the maintenance of law and order, the importance of urban reforms and of the place given to the city as a political space and the normative discourses of the political elites on the need for “good” political uses of the streets.
|Are there left wing and right wing political uses of the streets of the Cidade Maravilhosa? Comparing street politics in Rio de Janeiro in the 1960’s and in the 2010’s|
|Maud Aurélia Chirio||Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, France|
|Que faire de la rue? La redéfinition du champ politique argentin au temps de la crise des démocraties libérales (1932)|
|Marianne González Alemán||Universidad de Buenos Aires / Untref, Argentine Republic|
|`Depoliticizing the Streets. Public Order Acts and their Effects on Street Politics in 1930s Europe|
|Harm Kaal; Casper Kirkels||Radboud University, the Netherlands|
|Le désordre (dans les rues) au service de l'ordre (dans les rues). Usage d'une force citoyenne dans le dispositif de maintien de l'ordre sous la Monarchie de Juillet|
|Mathilde Anne Larrère||Université Paris Est Marne la Vallée, France|
|Belo Horizonte and Brasília: the political reinvention of the street in Brazilian cities|
|Carlos Alberto Oliveira||Unicamp, Brazil|
|The Street-less Revolution: The Spatial Configuration of Iran’s 1906 Constitutional Revolution|
|Ashkan Rezvani Naraghi||University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, United States of America|
|Manifester pour Ferrer (1906-1909)|
|Vincent Robert||Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, France|
|The First World War on the streets: New York and Buenos Aires|
|Maria Inés Tato; Ross J. Wilson||1: CONICET, University of Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic; 2: University of Chichester, United Kingdom|
In the past two decades the study of the city has benefited from the vast possibilities opened to scientific research by digital technologies. Virtual/cyber archaeology and virtual heritage are today fields of study in their own right, requiring a specific methodological framework as documented in the London Charter (2006, 2009) and the Principles of Seville (2012).
Digital tools are currently processing, testing and displaying, at a rate and in a fashion never achieved before, archaeological data, architectural remains, built heritage, written, iconographic and cartographical sources. The multidisciplinary character of the study of the city is also being emphasized. Research teams can include various specialists, such as historians, architects, sociologists, anthropologists, geographers and experts in computer science, working in virtual collaborative environments, often in real time.
Research results are made available to a wide audience through interactive and often immersive 3D virtual environments. The memory of the past or the representation of the present are not only revisited in a new sensory dimension, but are also changed by our own actions and experiences. The scope of urban historical research is widened, encompassing didactic and leisure purposes and may acquire, as a result, a distinct commercial value, as is the case of edugames and virtual tourists guides. Thus, the study of the city in the digital realm does not only allow a swifter and more comprehensive analysis of the available documentary sources, but it also generates new data, already in a digital format, which can be used for a variety of purposes. In doing so, virtual/digital cities are reinforcing and reinventing the ever interchangeable relationship between past and present.
This panel seeks papers that examine the methodological, epistemological and ontological questions that the study of the city in the digital context poses to urban history, architectural history, museum studies, cultural heritage and urban planning.
We especially welcome papers that address (but are not necessarily limited to) the following topics:
• Digital/virtual cities as a new laboratory for historical research
• Thinking digital for historical research
• Virtual heritage: a new ontology for urban history?
• Devising an operative methodological framework for computer-based historical research: the role of the London Charter and the Principles of Seville
• Social interaction in the context of digital/virtual cities: an epistemological outlook
• The city in comparative perspective: digital/virtual cities as a network of debate and knowledge sharing for a wide audience of experts and users worldwide.
|The Voices of the City: Digital Archive of Lviv’s Oral History|
|Natalia Otrishchenko||Center for Urban History of East Central Europe, Ukraine|
|Digital research tools for the exploration of urban creativity. The case of early modern and modern Amsterdam|
|Claartje Rasterhoff; Harm Nijboer||Universiteit van Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|“Porto World Heritage” Exhibition at Google Cultural Institute. In between a pedagogical experience and the creation of a heritage diffusion product|
|Maria Leonor Botelho; Lúcia Maria Cardoso Rosas; Hugo Barreira||FLUP/ CITCEM, Portugal; FLUP/ CITCEM, Portugal; FLUP/ CITCEM, Portugal|
|StadtParterre - It needs more than a conventional 3D-City Model to research the urban ground floor level|
|Angelika Psenner||TU Vienna, Austria|
|A Urban History Turn: Digital Historic Cities as Digital Facts|
|Paulo Simões Rodrigues; Alexandra Gago da Câmara||University of Évora, Portugal; Open University, Portugal|
|Virtual reconstruction of monastic Lisbon: case studies|
|Ana Cristina Chalaça Gil||Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal|
|The ICT and "Catasto Rabbini": for a new history of the city of Turin in digital|
|Marilena Di Prima||Politecnico Di Torino, Italy|
How should the future archive sector support the research-based urban history? Archives worldwide are undergoing a digital transformation, both in terms of collecting, preserving and making their collections available. The transformation is both induced by the digitization of information formation in general, but is also due to an extensive retro-digitization of analogue materials. Preference is often given to genealogical sources – church records, census, military records etc. Even though this material may have urban history relevance, it has only marginal importance in most urban history research contexts.
The purpose of this session is to generate a general discussion on how the archives – in particular the national archives and city archives – adapt to the kind of digital research infrastructure that urban history needs in the future and how to create links between research questions and digitization priorities. The session will be based on presentations of concrete cases.
Potential themes that will fit the aim of this the session could include:
Specific digitization projects that have sought to store and make available large amounts of digital data in archives in dialogue with urban historians; projects that have organized archive registration systems following the needs and standards suitable to urban history research; archives that have made urban history data available as part of open data or linked open data schemes; attempts af combining digital archives with digital humanities and for instance semantic and quantitative analysis tools; outreach activities that have sought to engage a broader audience in the digitization of urban history archive material.
|Opening the Registers: Digital Humanities and the Aberdeen Burgh Records|
|Jackson Webster Armstrong; Andrew Mackillop; Andrew Simpson; Adam Wyner; Edda Frankot; Phil Astley||University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom; Aberdeen City & Aberdeenshire Archives|
|Helping Urban Historians Find Their Way. How the Scientific Collections of IRS Erkner curate knowledge|
|Kai Drewes||IRS Erkner, Germany|
|Digitizing the life stories of Copenhageners. Collecting, digitizing, and transforming memoirs and registration forms in the Copenhagen City Archives|
|Peter Wessel Hansen; Helga Mohr||Copenhagen City Archives, Denmark; Copenhagen City Archives, Denmark|
|Mapping City Councils’ Deliberations for the Urban Development Research: Dubrovnik 1400-1450|
|Ana Plosnić Škarić; Alessandra Ferrighi||Institute of Art History, Croatia; Universita IUAV di Venezia, Italy|
|Digitizing the New York City Record: Creating Historical Big Data|
|Jonathan Soffer||New York University Tandon School of Engineering, United States of America|
|Utilizing iron and steel archives to explore the urban history of the Victorian 'boom town'|
|Tosh Warwick||Leeds Beckett University, United Kingdom|
This session aims at bringing together researchers that are interested in how, by whom, why and when ‘urban memory and history’ has been creatively created in urban contexts during any present that concerns the last 200 years, i.e the early modern period and up until today.
Our framing of the issue, ‘the city as mnemonic device’, implies that we wish to acknowledge the city as a heterogeneous composite consisting of a plethora of temporalities that reside in both imaginaries, narratives and materialities, and that are played out and maintained in many different ways and by a broad variety of different practices: apart from those within the dominant heritage domain and discourse (that safeguard particular historical monuments and physical traits through preservation planning, restauration and narratives of canonized history), we should also look into how other and less institutionalized actors engage with the city’s past. For example, grassroots movements and NGO:s narrating alternative histories when engaging in the everyday urban environment; novel writers and artists representing imaginary pasts of the city; various craftsmen engaging in continual mending and repair and work for material continuity (beyond heritage guided restauration and preservation).
We welcome contributions that address both the critical moments and the longue durées (the rapid and/or gradual transformations as well as the continuities) that are of relevance for understanding a broad array of practices related to the city as mnemonic device. We especially look forward to contributions that examine the memory-history-materiality interface, including discursive, artistic and practice oriented negotiations and cultural expressions, by less recognized social practices.
|São Paulo and its colors: the whitewashed houses of bluish white, to gray skyscrapers|
|Ingrid Hotte Ambrogi||Mackenzie Presbiterian University, Brazil|
|Mapping controversial memories in the historic urban landscape: A multidisciplinary study of Ostiense (Rome)|
|Lucia Bordone||Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland|
|Wartime memory is a bumpy ride: affect and mourning in the Italian urban vernacular|
|Sarah De Nardi||University of Hull, United Kingdom|
|Alexander Kincaid: Predicting the future and remembering the past|
|Philip A. Dodds||University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom|
|New voices in the narratives of the city|
|Susanna Lundberg; Tommy Lindholm; Roger Johansson; Fredrik Björk; Per-Markku Ristilammi; Pål Brunnström||The Institute for Studies in Malmö's history. Malmö University, Sweden|
|Memory and the Literary Imagination: Bruno Schulz’s Moments in Market Square|
|Anca Matyiku||McGill University, Canada|
|The Buried Memories and Networked Remembrances of the Railways Beneath London and Berlin|
|Samuel Oliver Crichton Merrill||Umeå University, Sweden|
|Spicing up Memories and Serving Nostalgias: Thematic Restaurants and Transnational Memories in East-‐Central European Borderland Cities|
|Eleonora Narvselius||Lund University, Sweden|
|Disrupted Urban Memory: Wrocław and Modernism in the National Periphery|
|Sarah M. Schlachetzki||New York University, United States of America|
M41: Contemporary Public Spaces and Cultural Manifestations – Cities, Creativity and Modern Civic Expressions
Since 1980s, the city was ‘rediscovered’ and began again to exercise a gravitational pull, because of its cultural institutions, richer artistic life and urban vitality. World Cities Culture Report 2012 emphasized that cities are as important in terms of culture as they are in finance or trade. Many cultural elements shape the city, including “its large and small music venues, libraries and book shops, museums and galleries, parks and open spaces, football clubs and cricket grounds”.
It is difficult to imagine that in 1970s there was a fear that the city was in such a decline that it might not recover. The city centers businesses pushed citizens to the suburbs. Simultaneously an extensive cultural movement began. Old factories, warehouses, military barracks, breweries; train or fire stations, along with time-worn working class districts were transformed into culture or experience centers. Creative professionals – musicians, designers, artists, writers or intellectuals gravitated to those places, forming the vanguard of regeneration.
At the same time, urban arts, science and sports festivals started to bring people together and shape public spaces, supported by the local municipality, universities or businesses. Creativity, legitimized within arts, spread to other spheres, encouraging social innovations and other originative activities. Culture, science and sports events have gained the reputation of the main tool in forming the city’s cultural awareness and creative image.
Since 1980s, more pedestrian areas appeared to provoke creative recreation. Their landscapes, pieces of art, and visual educational forms encourage people to practice their curiosity and artistic talents in many ways, including street art.
Used in political discourse the words ‘culture’, ‘creativity’ and ‘city’ settled a dynamic vision with far-reaching impacts on urban life, its well-being and vitality internationally. In this session, we want to discuss the role of culture, cultural manifestations and places in the city, both in Europe and globally. Our focus is on the 1970s and 1980s an and contemporary history.
We hope to receive papers, discussing following issues:
• What kind of festivals and cultural events emerged in cities?
• What were the key drivers in the process
• The use of public spaces for cultural manifestations?
• Transformations of old industrial and harbor buildings into cultural centers
• Who were the main civic actors and creators of these new cultural activities?
• The financial background of new cultural activities
• The role of municipalities in creating new cultural policies and renewal projects
• New concepts of cultural constructions in existing and developing urban environments
|Memory in Contemporary City Voids. Magnetized Spaces and Cultural Manifestations|
|Mara Sanchez Llorens; Miguel Guitart Vilches||Nebrija University, Spain; Pontifical University of Salamanca at Madrid, Spain; University at Buffalo / The State University of New York, United States of America|
|Theatre performances in public spaces; two examples in Istanbul|
|Mehmet Kerem Ozel||Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey|
|Reimaging versus Reimagining: Rebranding Belfast|
|Sarah Feinstein; Sheelagh Colclough||University of Manchester, United Kingdom; Artists, United Kingdom|
|The challenge to revitalize the ancient Port areas in Traditional Urban Centers|
|Eloísa Petti Pinheiro||Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil|
|Moscow Gas Plant: from the industrial landmark to creativity gravitation|
|Anastasiia S. Petukhova||Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation|
|The aspects of contemporary urban festivals - the new cultural and creative identity of Polish cities|
|Magdalena Miśkowiec||Institute of Urban Development in Krakow, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland|
|Studding of Iran’s Contemporary Urban Design from Culture to Modernity|
|Mina Saffari; Mostafa Behzadfar||Iran University of Science and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran|
|14 Art Stations of the Naples Metro|
|Fabiana Susini||Università Di Firenze, Italy|
|Divisoria Night Café: Showcase of Public Space Renewal in Southeast Asian Urban Context|
|Luzile Mae Buenagua Satur||Passau University, Germany|
The socio-economic and political condition in the communist and post-communist countries changes constantly and has a deep impact on the urban transformations. Various dominant sovereignties and levels of openness mediate now the political discourse in these contexts, claiming to overcome antagonistic political stances and witnessing an emancipation of the radical state-ideologies. The Ukraine crisis and the recent opening of the diplomatic relations between Cuba and the US have brought once again into discussion the dynamic of political sovereignties. In this contemporary condition it is therefore necessary a deeper understanding to be had of the ways in which urban structures and spatial praxis constitute setting and background for such metamorphoses.
The session attempts to understand the way radical transformations within former and actual communist countries translate in the form of the city, as well as the role played by the urban fabric and infrastructure in the process of mediating collective identities. It aims to gather presentations addressing various contexts and diverse ideological manifestations, with a special interest in countries of the former USSR and the Americas (Cuba). Mapping transformations in these spaces it attempts to investigate various projections of the notions and phenomena of ideology and post-ideology as manifested in the urban structure and the way they are metabolized by the contemporary condition of the cities.
The session purposes to provide an academic framework for the discussions of these peculiar cases aiming to investigate the question of urbanism’s significance in the contemporary context of changing ideologies and political stances. It proposes to address one main question: How do such political transformations, generate forms of social and urban praxis able to negotiate the collective or contested identities that the city supports?
More specific themes might include:
– Re-appropriation of ideological urban structures in the contemporary (post)communist city
– Political sovereignties, contested spaces and the urban discourse
– Urban identities and collective memory in the (post)communism
|Modernization of Post-socialist Cities – Main Factors and Challenges|
|Adam Jarosz||University of Zielona Gora, Poland|
|A Capital Without History: Soviet and Modern Components in Minsk’s Urban Space|
|Maryna Shabasava||Belarusian State University, Belarus|
|Where is the working class? Social imaginary of industrial city during state socialism and transition in Poland|
|Agata Magdalena Zysiak||University of Lodz, Poland|
|Afterlife of Planned Districts: Human Perspective of Sykhiv Public Spaces|
|Natalia Otrishchenko||Center for Urban History of East Central Europe, Ukraine|
|US and Them|
|Caroline O'Donnell; Michael Jefferson||Cornell University, United States of America|
|Tallinn urban visions of the transition era – from socialist trauma to neoliberalist mirage|
|Ingrid Ruudi||Estonian Academy of Arts, Estonia|
Political, social and cultural activities take place in cities in various forms. In terms of spatiality, these activities are not spread out evenly across the city but condense at certain locations. The proposed session wants to take a closer look at one of these urban focal points: the town hall square. Town halls are representative buildings with a prominent architectural character, located in the city centre, and usually accompanied by large open areas in front of the buildings.
The central character of town hall squares dates back to pre-modern times, but this session focuses on their instrumental uses and adaptations in European and non-European cities in the 19th and 20th century. Town hall forecourts have been the scene of official rallies, political demonstrations, commemorations, festivals and celebrations as well as commercial events such as street markets, outdoor concerts, sports events, or tourist sightseeing. Activities there can count on a high level of public and media interest, which makes access a contentious issue: Who is entitled to take advantage of a place so close to urban political and economic power and for what purposes? Has the character and function of the town hall square in larger cities changed over time with urban sprawl? Has the separation of housing, work, and leisure weakened its status, or on the contrary, strengthened the need for a central site of urban interaction and communication? Besides the immediate political dimensions, we are also interested in the consequences of changes in consumer culture especially in the second half of the 20th century when hotels, restaurants, or department stores located at town hall squares often lost their status as „first addresses“. Finally, aspects of urban planning such as traffic routes, redesignation of adjacent representative buildings, or town hall squares as sites of memorials may also be addressed.
Methodologically, the session is inspired by approaches to urban history as a history of social practice. We want to open up new perspectives on the links between urban spatiality, power relations, and communicative and commercial activities in the modern city. Through case studies we want to shed new light on the relationship between urban space and identity in different national and regional contexts. We hope to combine research from political, social and cultural contemporary history with urban studies and the history of architecture and city planning.
|Using and producing urban political space: nineteenth-century Antwerp city councils and their claim of the town hall square|
|Karen Vannieuwenhuyze||University of Antwerp, Belgium|
|The Social Democracy in the Public Space of Two Town Hall Squares in Ostrava (1890 – 1938)|
|Agáta Kravčíková||University of Ostrava, Faculty of Arts, Czech Republic|
|TRANSFORMING "THE HEART OF THE CITY". TOWN HALL SQUARES IN SILESIA IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY|
|Magdalena Markowska||University of Wrocław, Poland|
|The Town Hall, its Space and the Formation of Urban Identity: the strange Case of Wolfsburg|
|Joern Eiben||Helmut Schmidt Universitaet Hamburg, Germany|
|“A Witness of our glory and even of our disgrace.” The Old Town Square in Prague|
|Veronika Knotková; Hana Svatošová||Prague City Archives, Czech Republic|
|Leipzig: City with two Town Halls|
|Inge Marszolek||University of Bremen, Germany|
|Create a New Centre for the Nation: The Civic Centre of the Greater Shanghai Plan and the Response of Citizens|
|Xiao Wei||University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom|
|Urban Sprawl, Social Media and the Town Hall Square as a Symbol for Civic Culture|
|Kathryn Elizabeth Holliday; Colleen Casey||University of Texas at Arlington, United States of America|
|Soccer, Beer and Wine. Festival Culture at the Munich and the Hamburg Town Hall Square|
|Sylvia Necker||Institute for Contemporary History Munich-Berlin, Germany|
This session is interested in housing programs for employees (in the broadest definition, including multiple social groups) and the shaping of the 20th century city. Often understood in the scholarship as mutually exclusive problems, worker housing and the city have during the 20th century been highly inter-related modes of planning and design. Examining diverse disciplinary perspectives (urban history, architecture history, planning, social, institutional and economic history) this session will explore attempts to shape, mold and educate the public-as-worker via housing, and the effects of this enterprise on the city.
Since the ‘Age of the Revolutions,’ visionaries, professionals, private corporations and public institutions made attempts to shape the house as element of distinction and self-representation, as well as of education, applied to worker everyday domesticity via design of settlements, housing units, dwellings, communal spaces and facilities, furniture and interior design. These programs had immense impact beyond worker apartments and residential complexes, affecting the very idea of planned settlements, and shaping theories and programs for city planning. Residential programs and policies inaugurated for worker housing became key site for experimentation with planning models, settlement layouts, hosing codes and standards, building types, apartments layouts, model furniture, building techniques and spatial coding of ‘proper’ habitats for diverse groups of workers. Often mirroring companies’ strategies of self-representation, lifestyles and social models, used in an instrumental way to promote modes of life and to eliminate social differences, to encourage forms of social identification, in the attempt to forge corporate identity. Improvements to tenements of the industrial city, garden cities and the very idea of planned environments for workers, and company towns based on production and consumption had central role in the processes of construction and transformation of the 20th century city, influencing the forms, chronology and geographies of the urban development. These residential programs thereby introduce workers and promoters as agents in continuous negotiations over the 20th century city.
We invite papers exploring worker housing and the city in different geographical, political and social contexts, using diverse design perspectives and adopting scales of observation ranging from planning schemes and policies, to residential programs, housing models and settlements layouts, the building and the domestic space. Papers are invited to address a plurality of concerns such as the definition of planning, housing and social models, looking also at the places of their elaboration and dissemination.
|Desire or Displacement? Working-Class Notions of Urban Space around 1900|
|Philipp Reick||Hebrew University, Israel|
|The proletarian house revisited. Workers’ housing and the industrial city before the rise of the Welfare State|
|David Peleman||Ghent University, Belgium|
|Social housing and the (re)shaping of the French cities during the Interwar Period (1919-1939)|
|Romain Gustiaux||Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, France|
|The French Colonial-Period Worker Housing in Casablanca, Morocco: The Case of Muslim-Specific “cité ouvrière” (1932-1952)|
|Said Ennahid||Al Akhawayn University, Morocco|
|Two neighbourhoods created in Barcelona in the 1950s: two models of a city, two models of society|
|Maribel Rosselló||UPC (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Spain|
|Mass Housing Beyond Building Regulations: The Socio-Political Dimensions of Built Form & Lifestyle of the Working Class in Tehran|
|Seyed Mohamad Ali Sedighi||TU Delft, the Netherlands|
|From the apartment for the worker to the apartment for Kovalsky: concepts and realities of housing in Poland in years 1918-1939 and 1944-1989|
|Dariusz Jarosz||Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland|
|From Workers’ Colonies to the Socialist Factory Towns in Romania. The case study of the mining and metallurgical areas from Transylvania and Banat|
|Gabriela Pascu; Oana Cristina Tiganea||Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning Timisoara - UPT, Romania; Politecnico di Milano, Italy|
|Visions of Port Melbourne|
|David Graham Nichols||University of Melbourne, Australia|
This panel explores historical experiences of urban dereliction from an environmental history perspective. It asks the question, how did the re-inhabiting of urban spaces by flora and fauna change the ways in which cities were imagined and experienced? The session is particularly interested in cultural responses to the presence of nature in urban ruins – in the aftermath of destruction through conflict, the abandonment of sites following natural and man-made disasters, and the neglect of built environments through planning blight or economic recession.
The subject is current both in terms of developing scholarship on environmental histories of the city and in responding to contemporary initiatives such as re-greening, (guerrilla) urban gardening and the creation of urban nature reserves, as well as the connections increasingly drawn in current policy between ecology and urban regeneration. Recent reflections on understandings of ‘nature’ in the historiography have encouraged interest in the creation of specifically urban ecologies, questioning the distinction between the man-made world of the city and the ‘natural’ terrain against which it has so often been defined. This panel will develop the theme of an environmental and cultural history of derelict urban sites as a way of exploring historical understandings of intersections between the man-made and the ‘natural’, examining the ways in which responses to these sites functioned as critiques of social and economic experience.
When weeds colonised abandoned factories, wild animals moved in to occupy areas of demolition, or wild flowers bloomed amidst the bomb damage of wartime cities, how did people respond to these phenomena? And what do their reactions reveal about the experiences of urban living, the neglect or destruction of built environments, and the impact of economic depression and austerity? Topics to be addressed could include: representations of urban ruins in art, literature, film and photography; botanical surveys and nature study in derelict urban landscapes; local activism and political debates relating to urban demolition and redevelopment; science fiction and utopian visions of the re-greening of cities; and the experience of these urban wildernesses as spaces of freedom, play and transgression. The theme allows rich opportunities for comparisons with experiences beyond Europe, particularly against a backdrop of recent studies of the ‘modern ruins’ of Detroit and ‘ghost towns’ in China. The panel encourages contributions from scholars working on
these topics in any historical and geographical context.
|Politics of the picturesque in D'Oyly's Dacca|
|Ishraq Zahra Khan||North South University, People's Republic of Bangladesh|
|Memories of extractive industry: the reclamation of scarred landscapes in Starachowice, Poland, and Melbourne, Australia|
|Victoria Kolankiewicz||University of Melbourne, Australia|
|Wartime memories. The perception of nature in ruins within the historical centre of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy)|
|Ruxandra-Iulia Stoica; Elisa Pilia||University of Edinburgh, United Kindgom; University of Cagliari, Italy|
|Catholic power and city-centre redevelopment in post-war Ireland: the death of a prison|
|Richard J. Butler||University of Leicester, United Kingdom|
|The Heterotopia of Urban Wilderness|
|Valentina Gulin Zrnic||Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, Croatia|
|“Nai-rob-me,” “Nai-beg-me” “Nai-shanty” : Historicizing the city of Nairobi from its ruins|
|Wangui Kimari||York University, Kenya|
If there is any problem common to all early modern urban societies it must be mortality and the disposal of the dead. High urban deathrates, shortage of space, and the possibility of conflicting social, political, and religious interests combined to make it an issue that could not be ignored. Local traditions and circumstances, however, might lead to radically different solutions to very similar challenges. This session proposes to explore in comparative perspective across early modern Europe the questions, how did cities respond to this problem, and what were their practical and administrative arrangements for handling and disposing of dead bodies? How does this illuminate our understanding of particular urban societies?
Recent historical and archaeological research in major European cities such as London, Naples, and Rome has opened up a vast and relatively new field of study. The treatment of the corpse and its relationship with the urban environment – from the church to the whole neighbourhood – are traditionally well-studied in ancient and medieval societies, but for the early modern period, many important questions remain unanswered. The comparative approach may offer illumination: for example, the different – or similar – solutions adopted in different cities for interring corpses during epidemic crises. As well as the exceptional, however, we need to consider ordinary practices, the everyday attempt to reconcile logistical and spiritual requirements in the distribution of dead bodies in the urban soil, and in the long-term treatment of the dead.
Our objective is to bring together recognized experts and young researchers to discuss a specific problem of urban history and the history of the body. In particular, we invite submissions that investigate the following problems:
– The designation and character of burial areas (both historical and archaeological enquiries)
– Transportation and accommodation of dead bodies before burial
– Practices of exhumation and post-burial treatment of the corpse
– The impact of epidemic and crisis mortality on burial practices
– The impact of specific religious beliefs or conflicts of belief – Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Jewish, Islamic – and of political exigencies on all the above
The pan-European focus of this session underscores the circulation of methods and practices throughout the continental area. This is a way to understand not only the links between knowledge produced in a specific context and knowledge elaborated elsewhere, but also whether or not there was common reflection around this topic.
|Digging up the dead: exhumation in early modern Venice|
|Alexandra Bamji||University of Leeds, United Kingdom|
|Piety, Pride, Merit and Hygiene: burials inside the city cathedrals and churches in 18th and 19th century Russia|
|Dmitri Budiukin||Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russian Federation|
|The Great, the Good and the Godly: Grave Management in the Grey Friars of London|
|Christian Steer||Independent, United Kingdom|
|City, parish, chapel or community? The organisation of burial places in early modern English towns|
|Jonathan Barry||University of Exeter, United Kingdom|
Protection of domestic space and existence of extreme distinctions between private and public spheres in the city have been assumed to be among key spatial characters of premodern ‘Islamic cities’ in scientific discourses. It has been widely argued that preserving the private space, by sealing if off from a perceived external threat, was one of the integral elements of giving the cities their forms embodied in the courtyard pattern, tortuous lanes, and an overall tendency towards inwardness. Going beyond these dominant suppositions based on functional characteristics, the session seeks to rethink the idea of spatial division in premodern Islamic medina in order to provide more complex understanding of space in this cultural-geographical context. The session will elaborate on the very notions of linking and distancing and their diverse implications in a variety of sources and dimensions of urban life including the city’s: visualitiy, spirituality (virtuality), rituality, legality, verbality, sociality and spatiality. To that end, we invite scholars from different disciplines to submit proposals that seek new perspectives in exploring instruments, manifestations, meanings, patterns, and metaphors of linking and distancing of space in the premodern Islamic medina. Papers that include case-studies, contain comparative inter-disciplinary analysis, or focus on everyday life are particularly encouraged.
Examples of questions that could be addressed include, but are not restricted to, the following: What are the effects, purposes, instruments and characteristics of spatial linking and distancing in the medina in the abovementioned, diverse dimensions? How are the space and its elements linked or distanced in different layers of spatialisation? What are the spaces of distancing or linking (spatial divisions) and how have these spaces been incorporated and manifested in the city? What are the meanings associated with each end-side of the separation or linking (e.g. interior-exterior, public-private)? What are the material and physical, social and practical, and metaphoric and conceptual settings of spatial connections and disconnections in the ‘Islamic city’?
|Urban Architecture and Poetry: Two Medieval Arabic Anthologies as Manuals of Mapping Urban Space|
|Alev Masarwa||Münster University, Germany|
|Noise and silence in the nineteenth century Medina of Tunis: Towards a sound based interpretation of the Islamic city|
|Chiraz Chtara; Mohsen Ben Hadj Salem; Azeddine Belakehal||Research Team on Ambiances ERA, Carthage University, Tunisia; Research Team on Ambiances ERA, Carthage University, Tunisia; LACOMOFA, Biskra University, Algeria|
|Hapticity and everyday life in the medina of Tetouan|
|Maria Gomez||SOAS, Spain|
|Definition of public/private space of the Islamic Medina in neighborhood scale based on insideness/outsideness concept|
|Morteza Mirgholami||Tabriz Islamic Art University, Islamic Republic of Iran|
S04: Reinterpreting Privileges: the First Urban Charters in Medieval Europe in a Comparative Perspective
The main aim of the session is to shed light on the process of formation of cities as chartered communities in Western and East Central Europe, based on the analysis of their first surviving urban privileges. Traditionally, these fundamental documents have been examined in historiography exclusively from a national perspective, something which considerably limited their interpretive potential, because the results based on the analyses of the privileges were only very rarely embedded into wider context and compared with findings of similarly oriented urban history works from other (neighbouring) countries. In contrast to this one-sided approach in our session we seek to stimulate a comparative approach within this research field by emphasizing selected features that are (to a certain extent) common to broad geographic areas. The next step would then be to abstract and understand similarities and differences between processes in various regions of Europe.
Participants should focus on issues related to the emergence of the first charters donated to the urban communities in their selected area, especially with regard to the following topics/questions:
1. What is the role of the ruler or other landowners regarding the process of issuing of the first privileges? What was the dynamism in the process of conversion of personal rights into territorial ones? Was there a chronological sequence in the acquisition of various prerogatives?
2. To what extent do the legal prerogatives that were included reflect the usage and demands of foreign groups in the urban communities (enclaves of the German/Fleming/ Romanic/Jewish etc. newcomers), or to what extent are they derived from local legal practices (customary law)?
3. What system of administration/government was typical for the first documented urban communities?
4. What are the typical issues mentioned in the oldest privileges – what was (was not) important for this stage in the existence of the urban community and why?
5. How did the liberties granted to urban communities relate to those that were granted to other social groups in the same period?
6. How do the privileges from the selected area compare in chronological terms and in their content to other parts of the Continent? Can one observe any direct connections or parallel developments/
We hope that by taking into account different approaches and discussing them in a comparative format we will contribute significantly to scholarly understanding of the relevant processes in all their complexity.
|Robert Antonín||University of Ostrava, Czech Republic|
|The charter of Evora of 1166 as a model document for some Portuguese cities|
|Filipa Roldão||CHSC-University of Coimbra / CH-University of Lisbon / FCT, Portugal|
|The right to elect judges: A particularity of Hungarian urban privileges in the 13th century (A comparative study)|
|Drahoslav Magdoško||Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Slovak Republic|
|Urban Resources and the Locatio of Polish Towns: Greater Poland in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries|
|Sébastien Rossignol||Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada|
|Chartered communities and individuals in comparision. Liberties and obligations of the townspeople, knights and peasants in the first charters issued by Teutonic Knights in Prussia in the 13-14th century|
|Michał Targowski||Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland|
A monastery can be quite often found in the urban environment, and, thus, it faces the ambivalence of its rather closed nature (removal from the worldly concerns) and location in townscape (the very essence of the world), with different paces characteristic for monastery’s and town’s lifestyles. The recent decades witnessed a research interest towards the topic of ‘Church in town’, and although there are some examples of not only case-studies but also comparative ones, they are mostly concerned with the rather limited regions. The session proposes to discuss the involvement of a monastic institution in the urban life on the day-to-day level, with attention to different possible spheres, such as economic, religious, social, etc. The session aims to bring together for the comparative analysis the experience from the towns of different size and rank (i.e. capitals, small towns), and monastic houses of different types (including different orders and, possibly, both Catholic and Orthodox confessions), located in different regions of Europe (including both the Western and the Eastern parts). The period under consideration is from the 10th to the 15th centuries. The result of such a far-reaching comparative approach, although still remaining within Christian world, is essential for a better understanding of the close coexistence of two institutions, essential for the medieval society, and can be a valuable basis for the further cross-cultural comparison, including also areas of other religions, of a religious institution in urban setting.
|From the Monastery to the City: The Monastery of St. Maria de Alcobaça, Portugal|
|Ana Tavares Martins||University of Beira Interior, Portugal|
|San Clemente in Rome as a Preserver of Urban Life in the "Disabitato" During the Medieval Times|
|Juhana Henrik Heikonen||Aalto University, Finland|
|Pisa, city of monastery between XI and XII century|
|Fabiana Susini||Università Di Firenze, Italy|
|Serbian Medieval Тown and Monastery: Monastic Trade and Mining Incomes and Church Properties in Urban Settlements (XIII – XV Centuries)|
|Vladeta Petrovic||The Institute of History, Belgrade, Serbia|
S06: Cities at War in the Medieval Islamic World (Xth–XVth c.) / Villes en guerre dans le Dār al-Islām médiéval (Xe–XVe s.)
From the 10th to the 15th Century, power became more militarized in the Islamic world. The sovereigns had to occupy the urban centres in order to control and defend a territory. The cities were provided with specific equipments (fortifications, barracks, palaces, racecourses, specialized markets or taverns) that were directly or indirectly linked to the presence of armies and military leaders. Then the configuration of the cities was deeply modified by the establishment of these new structures. Beyond these visible changes, the settlement of the soldiers had also a significant impact on the social and economic landscape of the cities. Finally, war itself broke out in urban centres, bringing violence, fear, and destruction.
Several works dealing with these topics and based on historical sources, have recently attested that war and military activities can enlighten the social and urban history of the Medieval Islamic world. Indeed, during the Middle Ages, most of the important cities in the Dār al-Islām were affected by internal and local struggles – Turkish expansion, crusades, Mongol invasions, Reconquista…
The present session aims at analyzing the consequences of the presence of military forces in Medieval Islamic cities, in times of war and peace. On the one hand, its purpose consists in understanding the process of the configuration and reconfiguration of the space, in a threatened city, before, during and after conflicts. One the other hand, it seeks to examine the perception of war among the population, and its behaviour and feelings, facing fights, sieges or invasions.
The panel will focus on several questions:
– How and to what extent did the presence of fortifications or equipments dedicated to the armies influence urban development?
– How did the inhabitants get ready for war? How did they live during conflicts? Did the breaking of war affect the social and economic order?
– How were buildings and places of the city used in war and post-war backgrounds? Did the configuration of urban space have an influence on combat?
|The siege of al-Bīra in 663/1264-1265|
|Mehdi Berriah||Université Paris 1 La Sorbonne, France|
|Medieval Damascus besieged. Perceptions and Uses of the Urban Space in War Context (10th-14th C.)|
|Mathieu Eychenne||UMR 8167 Orient & Méditerranée/Islam médiéval, France|
|Late-medieval war in the Maghreb: the battle for urban sustainability|
|Jorge Correia||Lab2PT / University of Minho, Portugal|
It is well documented in recent scholarship that densely urbanized and politically decentralized regions such as the pre-industrial Low Countries were the scene of vibrant inter-city competition. This competition could take on many different shapes: towns tried to surpass their neighbor towns by constructing higher cathedrals, higher belfries or more impressive city halls built in the latest fashion. A recent account of the political economy of trade in the Low Countries even singled out urban fragmentation and inter-city competition as the engine of institutional change: commercial cities needed to adapt their institutions and policies to “footloose” merchants who could move to other cities where conditions were more to the merchants’ liking (Gelderblom 2013). Competition often went hand in glove with emulation: cities eagerly copied from their neighbors. Yet, such competition was not always harmonious: it could lapse into outright violence.
Not only the Low Countries have been put forward as a region of intense inter-city competition. Recent surveys of European urban history have equally singled out other regions where geographical proximity and urban density became drivers of competition which in turn fuelled European urban development (Clark 2009). Urban history often invokes urban competition – with current-day competitions for the most gay-friendly or most pleasant to live city in our minds – as an important variable but urban historians usually remain rather vague about the specifics and dynamics of the process.
The question remains to what extent such dynamic inter-city competition and its resultant effects materialized in other regions which had different degrees and shapes of urbanization, market integration and different political systems. It is therefore important to consider inter-city competition in other, preferably non-European, regions which were very different from European regions in terms of urbanization, urban geographic proximity, political organization, the coercive power of cities, and market integration. To keep the session focused we limit ourselves to the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period.
This session has two aims:
1) Compare inter-city competition between regions. We strongly encourage paper proposals on urban competition in non-European regions. By doing so we want to evaluate the relation between urban density, political and economic organization and urban competition.
2) Flesh out the forms, characteristics and dynamics of inter-city competition by comparing different modes of competition. We welcome paper proposals on political, economic and cultural forms of inter-city competition and encourage the authors to compare different modes of competition in one region.
|Inter-urban competition in the late medieval English cloth industry|
|John Lee||University of York, United Kingdom|
|Inter-City Cooperation and the Rise of the European City-State|
|Michael Paul Martoccio||Northwestern University, United States of America|
|“Few Towns in the Kingdom Can Rival Leeds”. Inter-city Comparisons in Town Directories|
|Cristina Sasse||Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Germany|
Before the industrial light invaded the western cities during the 19th century, nocturnal life was deeply constrained by the unavoidable presence of darkness. The darkness restricted the permeability of urban space and night-time activities were regulated by urban administrations. Despite the attempts of control, the urban night has since the rise of early modern nocturnality always offered a contradictory sphere for various activities, often marginal, sometimes illegal, but increasingly popular since the rise of the culture of early modern nocturnality. Our contemporary urban nights are lived and experienced upon these material and immaterial temporities and spatialities.
Our session sheds light on the urban night from the angle of sensory history and its entwinement to control and order. The urban night and its history is tangled to the senses, another recent theme in the field of cultural history. Sensory studies, introduced to the field of history by the work of Alain Corbin, David Howes and Constance Classen, among others, have criticized the prevalent salience of sight and emphasized the importance of other senses. Darkness and senses have an obvious proportional relation, where the reduced sight is complemented by other senses. The early modern townsfolk were however equally adapted to perform in the dark and dim.
We are interested how darkness and the sensing of urban space is exhibited in various sources from early modern to modern times. The papers of the session discuss on various methodological and empirical perspectives to darkness, night-time, senses and control, from 17th century provincial towns to contemporary metropoleis.
|Night-Time and Seasons of Year in a Seventeenth-Century Nordic Town|
|Riitta Laitinen||University of Turku, Finland|
|Urban lighting in XVIIIth century Lisbon: darkness fighting Enlightment|
|Rosa Maria Fina||Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal|
|The city illumination and the sensory revolution|
|Ana Carolina Silva||Unicamp, Brazil|
|Governing the Night: Transgression and Ambiguity in the Nocturnal City|
|Katherine Alexandra Newman||University of Victoria, Canada|
S09: The Noses and Eyes of the City: Reinterpreting Early Modern Politics and Administrative Practices of Hygiene
Common images of early modern cities are hard to refute: Who, for example, ever read the novel “Das Parfum” (The Perfume) by Patrick Süßkind finds himself confirmed in the opinion that most European towns before 1850, and especially the metropolises, were dirty and stinking. Some historians explain, coevals were so much used to the conditions that they took things for given. It is also often assumed that contemporary eyes and noses were not blind and stub for urban conditions, but were simply trained to ignore them.
Nevertheless, contemporary reports do not testify of such general ‘sensual inabilities’ or ‘sensual blurs’: Here, coevals inform us about garbage, faeces and even carcasses on streets and at river banks, about deeply muddy paths after rains and the mixing of fresh and waste water. They speak of animals in city centres, of overcrowded private houses, hospitals and jails. They give testimony of stinking canals, dead fish and industries polluting waters.
What is revealed here is that modern ‘standards’ of urban life are applied to contemporary reports – they are read and interpreted with modern eyes and noses. But inhabitants and councilors had their own, time period-bound perceptions of cleanliness and hygiene and implemented politics responding to those perceptions. The general acceptance was that so-called “bad air”, air streams and vapors were responsible for diseases. Hospitals and cemeteries were relocated to the peripheries, streets paved, and civil servants and inhabitants were instructed to seek (that meant: look and smell) for so-called “bad airs”. Therefore the question is not, how coevals could stand pre-modern urban conditions. Instead, we should ask how contemporary standards were developed and became leading for urban politics, which procedures and techniques were used to achieve those standards, and how and because of which scientific and political debates standards could be changed until 1850.
The session welcomes contributions that deal with questions of medical and administrative debates and with techniques of controlling and monitoring of the urban space. The aim is to create a basis for understanding hygienic assumptions concerning urban life. The papers may focus on questions of practice, political agenda, procedures to implement them and the ‘instruments’ – that is most importantly: the use of senses, to control the implementation. The contributions will therefore replace the ‘modern’, deprecated view on early modern hygienic questions with a view based on contemporary theories and instruments: the noses and eyes of the city.
|Governing Grime: The Establishment of Sanitary Order by Sweden’s First Police|
|Tobias Larsson||Uppsala University, Sweden|
|Urban Dirt versus Urban Policing during the late 18h century. Changing perceptions of the well-ordered City|
|Catherine Denys||University of Lille, France|
|Lisbon in 18th century : the issues of cleanliness and public health|
|Adélia Maria Caldas Carreira||Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal|
|La modernisation de Tunis par les Ottomans et le colonisateur français : de l’amélioration de l’hygiène à l’institutionnalisation et au contrôle de l’espace urbain|
|Nader Meddeb||Université de Montréal, Canada|
|Vienna Owes its Unique Cityscape to a Special Historical Hygiene Aspect. Generous Ceiling Height—a Highly Relevant Value in Public Health Economy in Gründerzeit Vienna|
|Angelika Psenner||TU Vienna, Austria|
People have always communicated with each other one way or another. Information flow from one person to another has been studied widely from various perspectives. The study of letters is and has been a major field of study when looking into communication during the early modern era. Also newspapers and their circulation have been studied. And while gossip has also been studied a wider perspective to urban communication is still needed. Thus, in this session the focus is on the informal and unstructured communication within a town and among the townspeople. Today we have whatsapp, facebook, instagram, text messages and so on but what were the modes of communication during the early modern era?
The session seeks to find answers for the following questions. How did people communicate when it came to information that needed to be passed on quickly? How were messages, news and gossip mediated within a town? What kind of means did people use (e.g. short letters, messengers)? Who communicated with who? How can this communication be reached and what kinds of sources can be used?
We invite papers discussing small and middle sized towns. Major cities (such as London, Paris or Rome) have been studied vastly and smaller towns have been given less attention in historical research even though they have a significant meaning for the overall history of Europe. However, the session wishes not to concentrate solely on European areas but greets papers discussing towns outside the European continent with pleasure as well.
|Between Gossip and written Testimonies. Political Communication in the City of Mühlhausen (15th- 16th Century)|
|Evelien Timpener||1: University of Giessen, Germany; 2: University of Hannover, Germany|
|Swearing allegiance to the true faith: Oath-swearing as an urban multimedia practice|
|Louise Vermeersch||Ghent University, Belgium|
|“Out of Malice and Great Hatred.” Gossiping about Sodomy in the Early Modern Southern Netherlands|
|Jonas Roelens||Ghent University, Belgium|
|Courtyard, Churchyard, Coffeehouse: Messaging Early Virginia|
|Virginia Barrett Price||Southeast Chapter, Society of Architectural Historians, United States of America|
|High society communication networks and gossiping in the early nineteenth-century Turku|
|Topi Heikki Artukka||Turun yliopisto, Finland|
The arrival of Spaniards to the New World was tied to the foundation of cities as a way to consolidate their presence in the Indies. In fact, the most significant Spanish settlements were established during the sixteenth century and although Iberian legislation, mainly Leyes de Indias (laws of Indies), provided detailed instructions to found cities and villages, many of them faced relocation or attempts to accomplish it. In most of the cases, natural disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcano eruptions, and flooding, led to both vecinos –or citizens- and Spanish royal authorities to relocate populations and re-found settlements in a safer place.
This panel seeks to analyze the phenomenon of relocation in Spanish America in two regards. On the one hand, expanding knowledge on how natural disasters made vulnerable urban settlements to the extent of considering relocate them. On the other hand, examining the negotiations of vecinos and ecclesiastical and royal authorities in determining if they had or not establish a new settlement and where. Case studies of relocation of cities are the most illuminating manner to explore this historical process as it not only provides a better understanding of urban history and history of natural disasters in Spanish America, but also contributes to scientific discussions on vulnerability in the New World.
|Transfert et abandon des villes et villages dans le Nouveau Royaume du Granada et Popayán, siécles XVI-XVII|
|Yirla Marisol Acosta Franco||Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia|
|Water Volcanoes and tsunamis in colonial America: the cases of Guatemala, Chile and Peru (XVI-XVIII)|
|Victor Alvarez Ponce||1: Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Peru; 2: Freie Universität Berlin, Germany|
|Capital Disasters and Suspended Moves: Mexico (1629) and Lima (1746)|
|Adriana Scaletti||Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru|
|“Han causado gran ruina en todas estas provincias:” The complex third relocation of Antigua Guatemala, 1717-1777|
|Elizabeth Montanez-Sanabria||University of California, Los Angeles, United States of America|
The aim of this session is reflecting on the production of urban “in-between-ness” in the cities of the Islamic World in late 18th century and during 19th century. It intends to show how these cities accommodated the ‘moment of in-between-ness;’ the particular period in which confrontation between already existing city and the emerging urban patterns took place. Regardless of the sources of emergence (imposed, imported, developed from inside, or a mixture of all), this confrontation was accommodated spatially (urban form, urban space, etc.), culturally (life style, dressing, etc.), and socially (emergence of new social classes, change of social behaviour, etc.) in ‘spaces in-between’ where two modes of urbanity opposed, clashed, contested, negotiated, encountered, were ignored, or registered. In-between-ness can be the result of new urban forms, new approaches to urban life by inhabitants, or an interaction between these dimensions.
Although some studies have focused on the ‘moment of in-between-ness’ in the Islamic World, more in-depth investigations are needed to cover diversity and typologies of the construction of “urban in-between-ness” in different cities and socio-cultural and political settings. To this end, the session aims at introducing new perspectives to the nature and character of “urban in-between-ness”, compare different typologies and geographies of accommodation associated with the socio-political driving forces, and study how the emerging space was practiced and inhabited by the residents.
Papers are expected to concentrate on the emergence and consolidation of “urban in-between-ness” (basically 18th and 19th century), explore intellectual, political, and social challenges behind the scene, and reflect on the decision making processes and the ways by which new regulations were introduced to accommodate the emerging space. Different manifestations of “urban in-between-ness”, including urban pattern, social life, cultural topologies, traditions, etc. are to be discussed and highlighted. A variety of situations can be examined including the influence of waqf in the 18th century, urban forms of the Ottoman modernity, the impact of colonization, and the impact of the arrival of newcomers in cities.
The main themes to be discussed are:
What were the driving forces for emergence of “urban in-between-ness” in 18th and 19th century Islamic world?
How the “urban in-between-ness” was spatially, culturally, and socially accommodated, embodied and manifested?
How local administrative (e.g. Baladiye/municipality) regulated the emerging space?
|The Muslim Cities of Medieval Jerusalem|
|Michael Ehrlich||Ba-Ilan University, Israel|
|“Emergence of a City In-between”: Changing Urban Patterns in Ottoman Izmir|
|Mehmet Kuru||University of Toronto, Canada|
|Mosques, Churches and Synagogues and the "In-Between-ness" of Re-Made Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Provincial Identity|
|Alyson Wharton||University of Lincoln, United Kingdom|
The traditional similarities between urban history monographies from different countries all over Europe are easily detected and understood: cities have been organized and developed in about the same pattern, rooted in medievality and/or in the era of industrialization – and historians have had a way of presenting the history of the city grounded in common understanding of the research principles of the discipline of history. In a changing world, with postmodern discourse influencing historical thinking and with new management policy principles forming the political realities among many of the municipalities that initiates and contracts the urban history projects, the consensus concerning how urban history monograph projects are to be performed is not as stern as before. Should monographs be scientific case studies of urbanization processes over the centuries – or are they primarly to be seen as parts of the marketing of cities competing in development on the national and international arena?
The tendency towards the latter, utilitarian view of the role of history in modern societies is easy to recognize. With examples from urban history projects from different parts of the world, we would like to discuss arguments and expectations within the municipality boards concerning monograph contracts with historians – or with other performers of the tasks, as journalists, senior politicians or local historians on the outside of the academic field. Why should books about cities and their historical development be written in the world of today – by whom, with what financing, for what purposes and with what expectations to be read and used? Why are we as professional historians better suited for the task then for example public record consultants?
The proposes sessions aims to clarify the roles that urban history plays and can play in a new, international orientated political landscape, and the ways that we as historians can think as performers of the monograph tasks. How much, and if so in what direction, shall we change the model of the urban history monograph in a world with a diversified and postmodern influenced field of history? Shall we accept the influence of market and politics in doing urban history? What are our ways of Reinterpreting cities? One key issue here is to view the city as an open archive, something that the ongoing digitization of documents, maps, newspapers etc makes ever more possible.
|Experiences and Challenges in the Process of History Making|
|Christer Ahlberger||Gothenburg university, Sweden|
|European Urban History and Development in the Third World Countries: a case study of Iran|
|Mohammad Hassan Razavi||National University Iran, Islamic Republic of Iran|
|“The Making of a City”: Heritage and narratives in an industrial Swedish city 1950-2015|
|Johan Samuelsson||Karlstad university, Sweden|
|The “Feira Franca de Viseu”: a monography writing process|
|Liliana Castilho; Rui Macário Ribeiro||IPV-ESEV/CITCEM, Portugal; CITAR/Portuguese Catholic University - Porto, Portugal|
|Urban Histories as Loci of Critical Public Spheres|
|Jaroslav Ira||Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic|
Many cities and large towns stand on the coast and the seafront of most of these is dominated by their port facilities. Their immediate and easy access to the sea means that they have enjoyed considerable economic success over the centuries, but city dwellers since the 18th century have also wanted the opportunity to enjoy the sea. In some cities part of the seafront is devoted to leisure, providing residents with a space for indulging in sea-focused recreations from bathing to promenading. However, not all coastal cities can make this kind of provision and adjacent or nearby settlements instead meet the leisure and health needs of city residents and provide the facilities of a seaside resort, though not necessarily with all the facilities required by overnight visitors.
This session will explore how cities from the 18th to 20th centuries around the world’s coastlines have tried to cater for the leisure needs of their residents and how these facilities have also, perhaps surprisingly, attracted holidaymakers from further afield. The key questions include:
Should the seafront be considered as a marginal space or a central leisure zone?
What activities went on this area of a conurbation and how do existing facilities and buildings express its complex history?
How did cities manage and reconcile the conflicts between two apparently conflicting economic interests in a single limited space?
How and when have commercial interests and leisure pursuits co-existed and in what circumstances might one supplant the other?
How do some cities create symbiotic relationships between these large coastal settlements and nearby places where leisure pursuits can be pursued?
Are there cities that have managed to grow independently without major commerce and how has this impacted on their seafront?
The aim of the session is to encourage people to contribute across a range of disciplines, principally drawing contributions from social and economic historians as well as researchers investigating the physical remains of this complex space.
|The Failure of the Bath Culture. Seaside Leisure and Social Dynamics in 19th Century Havana|
|Ana Amigo||Universidad Complutense de Madrid/ New York University, United States of America|
|Seaside tourism in the Austrian Littoral|
|Petra Kavrečič||University of Primorska, Faculty of Humanities, Slovenia|
|In search of the public of Greek seaside and thermal spas (mid 19th century-early 20th century)|
|Melpomeni Kostidi||University of Thessaly, Greece|
|In Defence of Leisure: Two Naval Cities at Work and Play|
|Fred Gray||University of Sussex, United Kingdom|
|The city and the sea. Evolution and transformation of a controversial relationship|
|Annarita Teodosio||University of Salerno, Italy|
|Earth in sight! The Brazilian coastline on target of real estate ventures|
|Cristina Pereira de Araujo||University Federal of Pernambuco, Brazil|
S15: Satire and the City: Representations of Cities and Urban Life in the Comical Press (18th–20th centuries)
The recent attack on the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo tragically brought the satirical press and its agency to the forefront of the political debate. Comical newspapers have long played an important role in commenting and testing cultural and socio-political practices. While caricature and satirical print culture date back to to the Enlightenment, it was in the nineteenth century when it became an urban phenomenon and an object of mass consumption due to the advances in reproduction techniques. Across European and Western cities the comical press became a dominant form of popular culture and was, ultimately, an antecedent to twentieth-century forms of entertainment and socio-political critique like comics and cartoons.
While scholarship has focused on print culture’s relation to social satire and class, or the stylistics of caricature, the relation between comical journals and the city have received less attention. As examined in the volume “Rire en Ville, Rire de la ville” (Histoire Urbaine, n° 28, 2011) humor sheds light on how urban identities and modernization were negotiated in everyday life. Thus, we propose a more nuanced look at the subject of satire and the city through its most far-reaching, popular, and metropolitan vehicle: the comical press. Not only were comical periodicals an essentially urban phenomenon on account of their methods of distribution and places of production, but also in what relates to its central subject matter, the vicissitudes of urban life.
This session will explore how the caricatures reproduced in the comical press articulated ideas of urbanity, place and lived experience, and changing socio-spatial relations in modern cities throughout the eighteen to the twentieth centuries. The purpose of this session is to examine the satirical press and its ability to comment, shape and test cultural boundaries, social conventions and power relations. We welcome interdisciplinary approaches that explore images of street scenes and city dwellers; the presence of women in public space; issues of class, urban leisure and consumption; the critique of urban projects; everyday practices like strolling and window-shopping or other significant themes of urban reality. Papers may also look at representations of place and the articulation of cultural memory through humor, such as the reworking of urban archetypes and customs or the treatment of places of memory that were bound to urban identity. We welcome both specific and comparative studies that establish connections between cities and the visual tropes used to express concerns regarding urban life.
|Satire and the city of Madrid: The satirical work of Modesto Lafuente (1806-1866)|
|Monica Fuertes Arboix||Coe College, United States of America|
|Satire and the city in the caricature newspapers of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (1879-1891)|
|Paulo Jorge Fernandes||Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal|
|The humorous eye and the modern mind: Visualising urban modernity in late nineteenth-century Vienna|
|Heidi Hakkarainen||University of Turku, Finland|
|Reconsidering the Urban Gaze: The Concept of Modern Spectatorship in Honoré Daumier's Caricatures|
|Raphaella Serfaty||Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel|
|Images of Scorn: Il Selvaggio on Architecture (1924-1943)|
|Michela Rosso||Politecnico di Torino, Italy|
|Cultural Geopolitics and Urbanism in Flux: Turkish Satire from Occupied Istanbul (1918-1923)|
|Amy Mills||University of South Carolina, United States of America|
S16: Outdoor Spaces for Children: Playgrounds as Materiality, Urban Planning and Designed Space in a Historical Perspective
Who cares for children’s urban environments and their history? With today’s rapidly growing urbanization, outdoor spaces for children tend to be marginalized in a planning perspective, and even invisible from a heritage point of view, while urban densification makes open land very attractive, but also expensive. Playgrounds have been important spaces for children in urban environments since the late 19th century. Their locations, aims, constructions and uses have differed according to prevailing ideas about children, education, and upbringing. When Children’s rights (UN) are globally brought to the fore, in connection to urban issues, the urban history of children’s space and place is a cutting edge theme for the future.
So what do we know about playgrounds as materiality, urban planning and as designed space in urban parks, school yards and sports grounds in a historical perspective? And how do we find traces of children’s imaginary places in history? Recent research shows that children not only have utilized specially designed playgrounds, but also informal space, abandoned places, impediment etc. What do playgrounds (and non-playgrounds) tell us about the role of children in the history of the urban web? Planned playgrounds vs “intuitive” children’s space could be explored along with adventure playgrounds and play sculptures, via standardized and safe playgrounds over to today’s (again) more individually designed playgrounds. Who designed them, and with what purposes? How can research questions related to gender, class, power and ethnicity be applicable to the study of playgrounds?
We welcome comparative and interdisciplinary contributions on playgrounds and other constructed spaces for children and teenagers in historical as well as contemporary perspectives. The theme calls for global versus local perspectives as well as new theoretical and methodological approaches. How does children’s play relate to political and societal changes like women’s roles on the labour market or the circulation of ideas about the socialization of children? How does the history of playgrounds relate to themes like declarations of Children’s rights (UN), legislation, security regulations or cultural heritage issues? When and how is children’s play expressed in utopian ideals or factual descriptions of urban life? Which narratives have dominated? What type of sources could be used to study and visualize how children have used formal and informal spaces and what are today’s tendencies?
|School yards, parks and gardens in Romanian schools (the second half of the 19th century-the beginning of the 20th century)|
|Ramona Mihaela Caramelea||National University of Arts Bucharest, Romania|
|Care and Play in Lisbon’s urban spaces: the creation of playgrounds during the Portuguese dictatorial regime (1933-1974)|
|Alexandra Alegre||CERIS, ICIST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal|
|Where did the children play? Play provision for children in high rise estates in post-war Glasgow|
|Valerie Wright; Lynn Abrams||University of Glasgow, United Kingdom; University of Glasgow, United Kingdom|
|Bombsites and adventure playgrounds: playing with urban space in Hue and Cry|
|Lucie Glasheen||Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom|
S17: Reinterpreting Urban Underground Spaces for the Production and Conservation of Foodstuffs in Modern and Contemporary History
Until the days of diffused use of refrigerating devices − in the XX Century −, a fundamental issue of urban life was how to store and preserve foodstuffs. The theme of conservation in this sector has become an integral factor of many quite disconnected areas of urban life: from production and transformation to the sale of foodstuffs, to defence on both a private and public level, to solving the problems of seasonal availability and rationing in times of hardship. Conservation of foodstuffs can therefore be considered a longstanding problem in the Modern and Contemporary history.
The aim of the session is to gather as many examples as possible which analyse the role of the underground in the management of urban requirements in the foodstuff sector: in what way has the underground been decisive in the ability of an urban conglomeration to maintain a provision of basic foodstuffs? What exactly is the role of the public sector in such an undertaking and what exactly is the role of the private sector? What are the techniques used to maximize the refrigerating capacity of the underground? Which urban areas have historically been preferred for these functions? What effects of the underground management of vital foodstuffs have reflected back on the civic lifestyle? What influence, historically, has the conservation of foodstuffs below ground had on the diet of the citizens themselves?
Fields of investigation:
- Ice houses as a method of conserving food
- The public defence of food underground
- Underground deposits and the rationing of food in the urban areas
- The reuse of the cellars, grottos and cisterns for the conservation of essential staple ( corn, oil etc) foodstuffs.
- Private underground cellars : from those of the monastic orders to those of private palaces and stately homes.
- Typical products. From olive oil to Tuscan wine, from Parmesan cheese to sheep’s cheese “di fossa” (matured in caves), the role of the underground in establishing a tradition of production.
- Women in the city in the era before refrigerators. The cellar as an ally in the management of the family larder and domestic life.
- The underground and the meat-eating tradition: salami, raising of pigeons, dried cod fish and salted sardines. Conservation procedures of protein foods in reinterpreted underground spaces.
|The market halls` basements from Bucharest at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century|
|Simion Nicolae Caltia||University of Bucharest, Romania|
|Underground and food management in Italy|
|Roberta Varriale||Institute of Studies on Mediterranean Societies-CNR, Italy|
S18: The Impact of the Second Industrialization Utilities on European Urban Growth, XIXth and XXth Centuries
The role played by infrastructures in the economic development of European cities has become an increasingly relevant issue in urban history. These utilities were strongly linked to the modernization that came during the second industrialization, both as a vehicle of technological, organizational and managerial advances, and through the impact on contemporary urban transformations.
Some conclusions about the relationship between those services and the development of European cities have begun to be established. Research has shown that incentives derived from new technologies were influential, both on the supply and demand sides. Thus, despite that during the second half of the nineteenth century the problems of European cities were multiple (as a result of their rapid growth, which generated a potential demand for many services), the second industrialization started to offer the tools to meet those needs.
We are seeking reflections on the relationship between utilities and the socioeconomic progress, that is, how they altered or were modified by urban economic development. Another topic to discuss is the impact of management systems in the adoption of the utilities, which is related to other issues, such as the financial, technical or organizational capacity of municipalities to implement new services, or the role of local elites or foreign capital (which was particularly important in peripheral countries).
Multidisciplinary approaches on technical (projects, network structure, urban planning impact, etc.), business (financing, management), regulation or institutional issues (legal framework) related to these public utilities will be welcomed. Papers that combine the former issues with the tools of Social History will also be eligible (social characteristics of the urban areas that were served by the new networks, impact upon urban social structure, etc.). Furthermore, the characteristics of the business elites, and their possible connections with local political power has undoubted interest in the manner and timing of implementation of these networks. Those papers discussing those issues at the national level rather than case studies will be appreciated, as well as those adopting a comparative approach that allows the development of a more comprehensive panel for the whole continent.
|Rationalizing Territorially Dispersed Consumption. - The Projects of Fernand Courtoy for the Electrification of Belgium|
|Dieter Bruggeman||Ghent University, Belgium|
|Railway Infrastructure and Urban Planning – the Romanian Case (1870-1920)|
|Toader Popescu||"Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urbanism, Bucharest, Romania|
|Urban space, private business and the common good: The Politics of the street in early 20th century Stockholm|
|Magnus Linnarsson; Mats Hallenberg||Stockholm University, Sweden|
|Smart cities and youth role|
|Mariam Momjyan||Public Services regulatory comission of RA, Armenia|
|From luxury to necessity: Frankfurt am Main as the pioneer of urban electrification|
|Takahito Mori||Hitotsubashi University, Japan|
|The switch over from coal gas to electricity in Spanish cities, 1880s-1936|
|Jesús Mirás Araujo||Universidade da Coruña, Spain|
Urban historians have long recognised the centrality of railway infrastructure and transport to the growth and development of cities. The impact of railways on city life is diverse and scholars have examined their role in shaping the economies, geographies, architecture and social fabric of cities around the world. As Wolfgang Schivelbusch has shown in his influential book The Railway Journey, the technological changes associated with modern rail travel had profound cultural implications, modifying perceptions of time and space, and reshaping perceptions of the urban environments through which people moved in ever greater numbers and faster speeds.
This session will contribute to understandings of the cultural dimension of urban railway history by examining the sensorial and emotional experiences provoked by the presence of trains, tracks and stations in cities. Underlying the vast economic and social consequences of increased rail traffic were a plethora of interior and intimate responses to day-to-day interactions with this infrastructure that transformed not just cities, but the way people perceived and imagined their environment. We seek papers that interrogate the cultural significance of the presence of railways in cities through the critical perspectives of a growing literature on the history of the senses and the emotions. Specific questions that might be addressed include:
– How were the sights, sounds and smells of train traffic perceived in urban settings, and how did they shape understandings of pollution, danger and risk?
– How did urban dwellers react to the spatial demarcations and segregations caused by the passage of train tracks through their neighbourhoods?
– How did trains and stations themselves become spaces of emotional intimacy, the scenes of tearful good-byes, of joyful reunions, of dreams of travel and escape?
– How were cities imagined and represented as sites of cosmopolitanism and exoticism as a result of their function as hubs of interaction with other cities near and far?
We welcome proposals ranging in temporal scope from the beginnings of railway transport in the early nineteenth century to the present. Geographical scope is also open, and in light of the conference’s goal of broadening perspectives beyond European contexts, we especially encourage proposals that address these issues through comparative and transnational perspectives.
|Reading Between the Lines: Uncovering the Impact of Railroads on Ottoman Izmir|
|Elvan Cobb||Cornell University, United States of America|
|The Boredom and Excitement of Suburbs and Rails: South London and Buenos Aires 1880-1940|
|Oli Betts||National Railway Museum, United Kingdom|
|Too close for comfort? The railway as neighbour in Victorian and Edwardian London|
|Richard Dennis||University College London, United Kingdom|
|Holiday through the cities – the urban and the vacation travel by train|
|Marina Bergström||University of Turku, Finland|
Key Question: Why do ambiguous spaces provoke both opportunism and opprobrium, and how have these gaps in the ordered urban landscape historically resisted the regulatory and civilising attempts of residents and authorities?
The urban environment has historically been categorised as either restricted or accessible according to rigid polemics and concrete boundaries. From ghettos to gated communities, the forbidding constructs born of poverty and wealth have been extensively studied by historians and social scientists, yet there has been a gap in the literature about those spaces that resist such class-based definitions. This has been addressed in recent years by some urban geographers – for example through the concept of liminal landscapes – but ambiguous spaces remain an under-explored attribute of urban environments. Such spaces range from expanses of wastelands and semi-public commercial districts to the assorted inadvertent landmarks of city life, including railway bridges, street corners, and patches of greenery. The uncertainties inherent to these sites imbue them with a disorderly potential that is recognised and negotiated on a daily basis by city-dwellers, but only periodically by authorities. As a result, ambiguous spaces are often also contested ones, and have been the target of regulation by urban authorities, self-governance by private interests, and protests by collective action groups. In spite of such attempts to control them, these areas remain an important, shadowy feature of the modern cityscape.
This session is therefore concerned with how these kinds of malleable urban areas have been interpreted, exploited and avoided across 200 years, from the early nineteenth to the early twenty-first century. The session organisers welcome scholars from a range of disciplines to discuss the contrasting ways in which various urban denizens have perceived and used these ambiguous spaces, and to consider why certain areas at certain times have proved so adept at evading the regulatory gaze of authorities.
The organisers hope that the papers will discuss at least one of the following questions:
– What kinds of areas in different cities have become ambiguous spaces, sites of both freedom and fear?
– How have urban dwellers engaged in and reacted against the development of these ambiguous areas?
– How have authorities and local people attempted to regulate, reform and regain the identity of ambiguous spaces?
|The Quiet Conflicts of Everyday Lives: The contestation of ambiguous spaces on social housing estates in Britain, 1929-1957|
|James Alexander Greenhalgh||University of Lincoln, United Kingdom|
|Trouble below the City - The early years of the New York Subway and the limits of control|
|Stefan Hoehne||Technical University Berlin, Germany|
|Immoral spaces? Mapping the Urban Geography of Prostitution in Edinburgh, 1900-1939|
|Louise Settle||University of Tampere, Finland|
The relationship between humans and animals in economic, ecological and ethical terms is one of the most crucial questions in the contemporary world. Yet, animals have been largely excluded from societal research. The absence of animals in mainstream historical and cultural research has restricted our understanding of the complexity of society, the lived environment and modernity. Currently new materialism, posthumanism and the burgeoning “animal turn” are problematizing and criticizing anthropocentrism and beginning to make animals visible in societal research.
This session focuses on the question of how urban societies have been and continue to be shaped by human-animal interactions. The aim is to go beyond the oversimplified polarity of human agency and animal subordination by examining the complex coexistence of humans and animals and their reciprocal actions. Human–animal relations include both regionally and culturally specific practices and conditions as well as global dimensions. Thus, the session will promote a wide perspective and any particular case study should be located within the broader transnational context.
Human-animal relations have undergone significant changes since the nineteenth century. Intensive industrial farming and urbanisation have distanced most people from farm animals and from wild animals familiar in rural environments. Urban society has simultaneously witnessed the intensification of other human-animal relations, for example those between humans and pets. Cities are also inhabited by numerous animals which are “wild” even though many of them use anthropogenic food sources. Some of these may be valued and may even become targets for biodiversity conservation efforts, while others are considered vermin. The aim of this session is to create a multidisciplinary comparative discussion that includes studies of all of these different aspects of animals in urban settings, in order to highlight the multiplicity and diversity of urban animals. The session will focus on the 20th century.
Potential themes include:
– methodological and theoretical questions regarding how human-animal relations can be studied, particularly in urban settings
– problematizing anthropocentrism
– pets in urban consumer society
– townspeople and the wilderness (e.g. hunting)
– tensions between people and animals in the city
– urban biodiversity conservation
– animals as food sources
|Liminal creatures; the urban history of the rat (rattus norvegicus)|
|Karin Dirke||Stockholm university, Sweden|
|Animal Uprisings: How Animals Fight Back in Fiction|
|Bo Johan Otto Pettersson||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|Conceptualising urban societies as human-animal entanglements|
|Nickie Charles; Bob Carter||University of Warwick, United Kingdom; University of Leicester, United Kingdom|
The session invites papers and contributions addressing the topic of urban education and socialization and the use of urban environments and representations in the every-day life of children and adolescence in the twentieth century. During certain periods – for example in the interwar years and during the 1960s and 1970s – public opinion in general, and pedagogy in particular – experienced something of a happy habitat for focusing on the lives of urban children. The interest for the intimate acquaintances of the young with the environment and the outdoor world of cities and the institutions of modern society broke new grounds, not least also with the proliferation of fiction literature for both adults and youth, school primers, organized outdoor activities and later on TV-series and films that sought to narrate the urban world from the perspective of the child. An abundance of material could be used to illustrate and illuminate the evolving discourses about the developing landscape of knowledge and experience of urban children and youths during different decades of the twentieth century.
The need for children and youth to be able to orient in the urban environment and to systematize their knowledge in modern society increased rapidly during the twentieth century. The emphasis on the everyday usefulness of knowledge was a recurring theme for all pedagogy and socialization that took interest in the relationship between the child and the city. Hence, the urban society was recurrently understood as a producer of new identities, capacities, risks and needs.
The session welcomes contributions that address the overarching question about the relationship between children and youth and the active use of the urban environment in pedagogy and socialization in various ways. – The concept of “educating” is here to be understood in an exploratory meaning, and the following questions are examples of the perspectives that the session would like to pursue:
– What activities, associations or institutions where pivotal for the socialization of urban youth?
– How did the differences in size, density and planning between individual cities or neighbourhoods – inner city or suburban environments – influence the mind-set and representations of urban society f.e. in fiction and film?
– How was the dichotomy of “town-vs-country” played out or differentiated in educational material and children’s books and primers?
– What aspects of environmental learning could be found in educational reforms and in organized leisure activities for children and youth in cities?
|Municipal Policies on Children's Play in London|
|Matti Hannikainen||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|Educating the flourishing Latin American urban youth in the early industrialization process of Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Mexico and São Paulo|
|João Victor Guedes Neto||Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Germany|
|Education in Military Activites at Prague Schools within 1970s and 1980s|
|Veronika Knotková; Hana Svatošová||Prague City Archives, Czech Republic|
|Educating Urban Youth for Work and Leisure|
|Mervi Kaarninen||University of Tampere, Finland|
S23. Reinterpreting Global History: Second Cities, an Alternative Road to Global Integration in the Nineteenth and Twentieth century
This panel seeks to extend both empirical and theoretical work on the nature of the global urban hierarchy. In particular, we aim to build upon recent comparative-historical scholarship that has developed the concept of the “second city” (Hodos 2011) as a Weberian ideal-type of globally engaged city alongside the better-known “global city.” For this session, we invite comparative analyses and case studies of second-tier cities that are fully integrated into various dimensions of global society, but which differ systematically from global cities like New York and London.
The concept of the second city takes the simultaneous intertwining of globalization and urbanization by scholars like Saskia Sassen as fundamental, but differs in focusing on “non-global” cities and in conceptualizing globalization as a much longer-term historical process. Second cities are fundamentally characterized by globally important economic concentrations in non-financial sectors like manufacturing; distinctive migration patterns that include international migrants but focus above all on ethnically or otherwise distinct and subordinate internal migrant groups; specialization in and development of expert cultures; and common political and planning struggles focused on maintaining their second position in global flows on the one hand, and constructing a strong ‘second-city identity’ on the other hand.
The set of second cities is large and encompasses a significant portion of world urban population. Recent and ongoing work in this vein has analyzed and/or compared Barcelona, Bremen, Liverpool, Manchester, Marseille, Philadelphia, Rotterdam, and Seattle, and in this session we seek to expand both the geographic and conceptual range of the concept. Themes that would fit well in this session include the distinctive economic traits of the researched cities (manufacturing, transport etc.), migration patterns, post-industrial urban development, urban planning efforts designed to enhance the city’s global integration, and distinctive cultural identities.
We have, ultimately, two objectives: firstly, to build on the empirical database for second city case studies, and secondly, to discuss the notion of second cities as a useful theoretical framework within the field of comparative urban history.
For this session we are particularly interested in comparative analyses that discuss multiple cases and that address one of the following key issues:
· analyze the extent to which the historical development of second cities is path-dependent;
· assess the relative power and/or importance of the different factors that help determine second-city status; or
· consider the question of whether there are “third cities” as well as second cities.
|MADE IN U.S.A.: Circulation of cloth in Ulhasnagar’s jeans cluster|
|Rohit Mujumdar||University of British Columbia, India|
|The Neighbourhood in Spanish Second Cities, 1854-1920|
|Anna Ross||University of Oxford, United Kingdom|
|Towards a Port City Typology: Considering the Port Cities of Rotterdam and Liverpool as Second Cities|
|Reinhilde Sennema||Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands|
|Second Imperial Cities: European Metropoles, Urban Docklands and Global Integration (1880s-1960s)|
|Daniel Tödt||Center for Metropolitan Studies. Technische Universität Berlin, Germany|
Throughout the world cities after the fall of the totalitarian regimes deal with numerous issues that affect the everyday life of their inhabitants. The cities, which benefited from the economic direction of the totalitarian regime concerning selected sectors of the economy, may become sites on the periphery of events after several years. Conversely, the democratization of post-totalitarian societies associated with the opening of borders, free movement of persons, knowledge and technologies in a short time can affect the development of cities and towns stagnating in the previous era. European projects of recent years have been focused on the so-called post-socialist cities, but in many areas of interdisciplinary approaches to the topic we lack comparison not only within Europe, but touching the world development.
We are looking for contributions that could develop the discussion on the following topics:
– What is the professional public’s attitude towards the cultural heritage of the totalitarian eras of urban space? How comes to the discourse of cultural value of monuments and urban complexes?
– How are cities presented and interpreted by the unofficial (prohibited) underground and dissident culture in relation to the official culture of the totalitarian regimes.
– Problem of memorial places: new versus old places of memory, overlapping memory locations by ideology of power and their reinterpretation.
– How city governments of post-totalitarian cities perceive urban public space? Do they support the transformation of the area controlled by ideologies of power to space for the presentation of culture and meeting of people or do they abandon this initiative for civic activities.
– We know the regions where one totalitarian regime was followed by another; eg. Central Europe. Is their cultural heritage presented similarly, or differently, and if so, why?
|Back into the bright future: Stalinist main propaganda venue and its transformations|
|Olga Zinovieva||Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation|
|Discursive Heritage Dialectics. On memories, labels, and profits of post-socialist landscapes of Poland|
|Mariusz Czepczynski||University of Gdańsk, Poland|
|Cultural Heritage and Searching for Identity in Post-Socialist City: Two Case Studies from Serbia|
|Mina Zoran Petrovic; Milena Petar Tokovic||University of Belgrade, Serbia|
|Cultural Heritage of the Post-Socialist New Towns|
|Ana Kladnik; Andreas Ludwig||Center for Contemporary History (ZZF), Potsdam, Germany|
S25: Cities, Science and Satire: Satirical Representations of Urban Modernity and Scientific and Technological Innovation in the Public Space
European urban spaces underwent fundamental transformation due to unprecedented scientific and technological modernisation as well as the emergence of the urban press from the eighteenth century onwards. In the course of just a few decades, modern roads and transportation connected previously distant cities as well as city districts to each other and to the city centre; street lightning made evenings safer and easier to navigate; and the provision of fresh water and canalisation prevented the spread of previously devastating epidemics and changed approaches to urban and personal hygiene. All these and other urban innovations were preceded by – and sometimes went hand in hand with – the increasing presence of scientific institutions in the urban landscape and the public sphere. Universities, academies, learned societies, clubs, casinos and coffee houses turned into places where the learned communities communicated with each other as well as presented themselves and their seemingly unchallenged knowledge to the broader public.
This rapid change was however not free from glitches and repeated failures, which was often regarded as inconvenience and nuisance to city dwellers: modern means of transportation squeezed people together challenging concepts of respectability and dignity, pipes broke, new urban projects caused visual and sensual embarrassment and often went wrong, and new scientific theories about urban betterment and “beautification” left the carriers of scientific authority embarrassed as well. Even the scientific quarters themselves – the new university campuses or the buildings of science and technology – often turned out inadequate to their initial purpose. The denizens of early modern and modern cities were not immune to these changes and liked to joke about them perhaps even more than we do today. The urban public sphere — the urban folklore, jokes that became stale from being transferred and readapted from generation to generation and from place to place, the boulevard press and other forms of sensational literature — were ideal venues to ventilate everyday grievances and discomforts though a creative use of humour and satire, and this led to the emergence and increasing popularity of the satirical press. This session will capitalise on the emerging new body of literature on the “urban turn” in the history of science and, at the same time, will zoom in even closer at specific urban projects and technological innovations that generated urban satire, revealing a much more complex and problematic representation of urban modernity.
|Money-mad physicians & unorthodox quacks – Public figures of fun in 18th century health communication|
|Cornelia Bogen||Tongji University, People's Republic of China|
|Laughing with animals: Caricature and the nineteenth century zoo|
|Oliver Hochadel||Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain|
|Degenerate city-spaces: representations of urbanity as a degenerative force in nineteenth-century political cartoons and satire|
|Rebecka Elisabeth Klette||Birkbeck, University and London, United Kingdom|
|Urban Modernity and Public Anxiety in 20th Century Ottoman Caricatures|
|Işıl Çokuğraş||Bilgi University, Turkey|
The Reforms, which were introduced in the Ottoman Empire from 1839 onwards, embraced the whole of Ottoman society, the organization of the administration and the economy, the institutional, judicial, military and social framework. They were designed to modernize the machinery of the state, to westernize Ottoman society and to free legislation and education from the constraints of religious law.
Furthermore the introduction of foreign technology and expertise, the opening of technical high schools and military schools, the founding of the School of Fine Arts and the enactment of new building regulations all created the conditions for a series of interventions intended to modernize the way the city functioned. The classic Ottoman-Islamic city was transformed into a city which was gradually discovering the tools of urban planning, adopting western methods of organizing the urban space and selecting new building types and forms to house the new services and institutions which were being established or reorganized. Expansion beyond the old city walls was encouraged while the fires which frequently afflicted the traditional nuclei provided an opportunity for the remodeling of the destroyed quarters and the implementation of a new urban plan. The urban landscape was undergoing a transformation. The old spatial and functional divisions along the lines of the ethnic-religious communities were becoming less pronounced and new spatial functions were emerging..
The session aims to analyze the re-interpretation of the Ottoman city after the Reforms through the implementation of new rules in urban planning, the emergence of a powerful multinational bourgeoisie and the adoption of European architectural styles. Also to provide new perspectives in the field of integration of new structures in a traditional environment and, finally, to examine the Re- reinterpretations of these cities in the National States that succeeded the Ottoman Empire.
We will welcome papers on these topics:
– Urban legislation of the Reforms
– Social structure in the Ottoman Empire and in the New National States in the Balkans
– Urban transformations
– Impact of the modernization process in the evolution of building types and forms
– Urban integration policies
|Two Different Squares in a City: The Case of Kastamonu|
|Kayahan Türkantoz||Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts, Istanbul, Turkey|
|“Toujours les Incendies!” : Fires as Catastrophic Motivations for Restructuring the Residential Areas of Nineteenth Century Istanbul|
|Seda Kula Say||Gebze Technical University, Turkey|
|Istanbul after the Arrival of Railways: Urban Transformation of the Old City at the End of the Nineteenth Century|
|Ahmet Erdem Tozoglu||Abdullah Gul University, Turkey|
|Urban Lighting and Technological Change in the Late Ottoman Empire|
|Sotirios Dimitriadis||Unafiliated, Greece|
|A new building type Ottoman Empire got acquainted with in Tanzimat Period: Theaters|
|Mehmet Kerem Ozel||Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey|
In the last decade and a half, Cold War historiography has gone beyond the focus on the superpowers and been enriched thanks to new perspectives stressing the gender, cultural, urban and global dimensions of the Cold War. Focusing on global interactions and entanglements recent studies have shown that regional and urban actors were very closely connected among one another and across national borders. Especially during the Cold War period, the number of twinning agreements signed rose significantly. While governments used them to support their foreign policies, they could develop their own dynamics, overcoming the East-West and North/South divide. They could link Eastern and Western European cities across the Iron Curtain and, also link European and “Third World” cities. Furthermore, city partnership (e.g. twinning) seems to be particularly important at the initial stages of European détente, where local actors were beginning to look for ways to transcend local confines and international bipolar divisions to pursue their own interests. In this perspective, urban partnerships could function as arenas of integration and supporting globalisation processes. However, there is a lack of research on the role of city partnerships during the Cold War.
Therefore, the session aims to contribute to the emerging theme of “Cold War Cities” discussed at the 2012 and 2014 EAUH conferences, by focusing on the role of city partnership in creating more differentiated insights into the history of the “Global Cold War” (Odd Arne Westad). To explore its history it is necessary to modify the traditional national perspectives. A combination of urban and global history approaches can be a starting point for this. Exploring new forms of relationships and cooperation among Eastern/Western European and “Third World” Cities the urban perspective can contribute to the understanding of how the international, national and local levels interacted in Cold War Era and, last but not least, how they began to shape the present day. In this respect, the session also aims to stimulate the current conceptual debates on “Cold War Cities” and the “Global Cold War” and to discuss how to link both concepts.
The session investigates traditional political, economic and cultural perspectives of city partnership as well as new analytical approaches such as gender, agency, ecology. Possible topics include, but are not limited to: cities’ international politics, cities linked through twinning agreement, partnership among port cities, European city partnership with the so called “Third World” or “Global South” cities.
|Between Detente and Decolonization: British Town Twinning during the Cold War|
|Malte Thießen||University of Oldenburg, Germany|
|The Communist authorities in Poland and the twin cities movement|
|Maria Pasztor||University of Warsaw, Poland|
|City partnerships between the Displaced Ethnic Germans from Hungary in the FRG and the German Speaking Minority in Hungary after 1956 till 1989|
|Krisztina Slachta||Historical Archives of the Hungarian State Security (ÁBTL), Hungary|
|Cross-border Municipal Cooperation in the Post-conflict Environment: The Gulf of Aqaba|
|Tamar Arieli||Tel Hai College, Israel|
Before the notion of vacation became available to the middle classes, before tourism became a leisure activity and transformed into a profitable business, traveling long distances occurred within the framework of religious practice. Pilgrimages across Europe, if not across a country, were a significant reason for travel, for large gatherings, and eventually for the flourish of the entire places around the center of attraction.
Even nowadays, that holidaying in a foreign country has become a popular practice, religious tourism is still going strong. However, with holiday tourism attracting the greatest interest of researchers, the effect of religious traveling remains unexplored. For this reason we wish to invite papers looking into the existence of religious poles in post-war Europe and the urbanization patterns they trigger. We wish to investigate the effect of religious monuments on the development of the economy in places surrounding them, as well as on the creation of infrastructures and businesses. Not least, we encourage scholars to offer insight into the changes in a place’s physiognomy, both from an architectural and an urbanistic point of view.
|The Urbanization of the “Divino Amore” Area as the Result of a Sanctuary’s Development|
|Maria Grazia Cinti; Caterina Ferraro Pelle||"La Sapienza Università di Roma", Italy; Architect in Roma Capitale, Italy|
|The Church in the City, the City in the Church. Spatial Parallels in Modern Architecture in Finland during the 1950’s and 1960’s|
|Oscar Antonio Ortiz-Nieminen||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|Processes and products of religious place-making by African diaspora in the mid-sized city in Belgium: the invisible African churches of Ghent|
|Luce Beeckmans||Ghent University, Belgium|
|Comparative analysis of religious places in experiences of Iran and Europe|
|Fatemeh Arfa; Mahsa Chizfahmdaneshmandian; Seyyed Abbas Yazdanfar; Mostafa Behzadfar||Iran University of Science and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran|
S29: Managing the State, Transforming the City. Office Buildings for Central State Administrations as a ‘Forgotten’ Type of Political Architecture, 1880–1980
From the late 19th century onwards, both the competence and scale of ministerial departments and state-run corporations have increased continuously in Western countries. This growth – which accelerated after each World War, and became a truly global phenomenon in the second half of the 20th century – necessitated the construction of large and well-equipped office buildings, which were often grouped together in the ‘administrative districts’ of capitals and other major cities. Yet, despite their relative prominence in many townscapes, governmental office complexes have rarely been studied by historians. Often, these complexes have been considered ‘anonymous’ or ‘banal’, lacking the ‘representational’ qualities of better-studied types of state-sponsored architecture, such as parliaments or town halls. Although many government offices indeed resemble the generic corporate office buildings which were constructed by property developers, they are not necessarily devoid of ‘representational’ qualities. Some governmental office complexes have even been explicitly designed as self-confident manifestations of state power and modernity, and were meant to be recognized as such by the public. In a more general sense, one could argue that designs for governmental offices often reveal a tension between a longing for cost efficiency on the one hand (which is central to every public expenditure), and a longing for representativeness on the other hand. Interestingly, the architectural programme of government offices is usually determined by dedicated agencies, which are attached to the Public Works department. This raises the question how these agencies have ‘translated’ the demands of politicians and government administrations (concerning representativeness, size, employees’ comfort, and internal arrangement) into a cost efficient architectural programme.
For this session, we are looking forward to papers which tackle the history of office buildings (or ensembles) that have been designed for centralized state administrations, such as ministerial departments or headquarters of large state-owned corporations (e.g. railways or telephone companies), between roughly 1880 and 1980. Different spatial dimensions (interior, exterior, location in the urban fabric) can be taken under scrutiny, as well as the discourses that were created by architects, politicians, civil servants, administrative reformers, organisational experts, and the public in relation to these buildings. We are very interested in contributions which reveal the aforementioned tension between economy and representation, and which emphasize how different actors in the architectural process have tried to resolve it. Moreover, papers in which a strong link is drawn between political, urban and/or architectural history are especially welcomed. The geographical focus is global.
|Between Budapest and Vienna – Zagreb Public Architecture in 1880 – 1918|
|Dragan Damjanović||Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia, Croatia|
|Operational Architecture: On the First Federal Immigration Station of the United States, Ellis Island, 1900|
|Sarah Sander||University of Art and Design Linz, Austria|
|The governmental complex on Nemanjina street in Belgrade|
|Elvira Ibragimova||CEU, Hungary|
|The materialization of an idea: the administrative center in Medellín, Colombia|
|Patricia Schnitter||Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Colombia|
|The Day After: Re/Making Spatial Organisation of Political Architecture in Northern Nicosia, The Post-Republican Era 1963-1983|
|Huriye Gürdalli; Umut Koldas||Near East University, Department of Architecture, Cyprus; Near East University, Department of International Relations, Cyprus|
Leading Question: How did transnationally mobile female actors engage and shape the development of a regionalism discourse in the fields of architecture and planning in the twentieth century?
From the mid-twentieth century, the expanding discourses on regionalism in a globalizing field of architecture championed and eventually canonized the works of architects such as Charles Correa, Geoffrey Bawa and Muzharul Islam. In addition to working in emerging nation-states, the family backgrounds, educations and client bases of these architects ensured that they were actively involved in powerful transnational networks.
In this session we will investigate the significance of such transnational mobility in the development of the regionalism debate, shifting the focus critically from canonized male actors to “marginal” female actors—opening this term and the actors it may describe as platforms for debate—including architects, planners, patrons, and users, in order to explore the fringes of architectural and planning history. We aim to find a more inclusive angle from which to examine connections between transnational mobility, regionalism and local lived environments, as well as the geopolitical, social and economic events and processes that catalyzed their intersection.
As a factor of globalization that accompanied the modern colonial and postcolonial moments—whether a function of privileged access to international networks or the result of forced migration—transnationalism and an emerging landscape of cosmopolitan sites offered women new proving ground outside established social, cultural, and commercial spheres. We are particularly interested in the modalities of this peculiar confluence of labor, politics, and culture, noting as examples the practices of Jane Drew in West Africa, Catherine Bauer in India, Minnette de Silva in Hong Kong, and Erica Mann in Kenya, which were contoured by transgressions of the borders of colonies and new nations. We also see that the transnationalism of certain female figures—Jacqueline Tyrwhitt, Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, Margaret Michaelis—resulted in their profound discursive engagement in modernist debates on regionalism and vernacular or everyday architecture. By studying village housing in the Gold Coast and anonymous architecture in North America and Europe, establishing cottage industries in rural Kenya, or writing histories on Asian regional architecture, many of these agents operated independently of the expected dialogical frameworks between colony and postcolony.
We seek papers that explore the roles, practices, and networks of transnational female actors from the margins; the reception and transmission of their work; and their imbrication with architecture and urbanism discourses on regionalism and the vernacular in the twentieth century.
|"Mine is an African view of Las Vegas": Denise Scott Brown on the Outside Looking Around|
|Craig Lee||University of Delaware, United States of America|
|Modern women on the edge: Lina Bo Bardi in Bahia, Charlotte Perriand in Japan|
|Silvana Rubino||State university of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil|
|Lina in Bahia, _Bahia no Ibirapuera_|
|Ana Maria Leon||University of Michigan, United States of America|
What is the future of urban history? In many ways, the future of our field is in the hands of current students, who work on a variety of topics and explore a wide range of new perspectives, concepts and methods. In this session, a selection of three young PhD students, short listed for the EAUH Student prize, will reflect upon the ways in which they relate to key questions such as the urban variable, the impact and meanings of urban space, interdisciplinarity, comparison, the art of relating concepts to method, and issues of heritage and public history. How should we deal with the historiographical legacy of the major international urban history conferences since 1966? How can we relate to the increasingly policy-driven research agendas in Europe? Will digital humanities change our view of (doing) urban history? In this special Round Table, students will lead the way in these challenging issues.
|Traffic-ing in History: The Evolution and Legacy of Glasgow Motorway|
|Sarah Mass||University of Michigan, United States of America|
|Urban Redevelopment & Public Health in the Late Medieval Low Countries: The Production of The Meat Hall|
|Janna Coomans||University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands|
|Settling Sapporo: Transience and Identity in Japan’s First Colonial Capital|
|Michael Thornton||Harvard University, United States of America|
|Towards a Port City Typology: Considering the Port Cities of Rotterdam and Liverpool as Second Cities|
|Reinhilde Sennema||Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands|
Every two years, the EAUH conference brings together scholars from all over the world to discuss recent research findings and future research directions in the field of urban history. But most scholars are primarily responsible for teaching. What kinds of urban history do we teach? How do we explain to students the relevance of urban history? How do we enable them to do innovative research? The aim of this Round Table is to share best practices in various types of courses (introductory courses, research courses, outreach projects) and to discuss how we can innovate in both our teaching and our research: through paper presentations, poster presentations and a display of exemplary syllabuses.